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Political: Who controls what? What type of government is there? Anything to do with laws or war. Economic: What type of economy? How do people make a living? Geography: Where is it? Is the land mountainous? Desert? Oceanic? Social: Religious, intellectual, artistic This Powerpoint is hosted on www.worldofteaching.com Please visit for 100’s more free powerpoints Ancient River Valley Civs : Ancient River Valley Civs ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA : ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA Oldest known civilization Cradle of Human Civilization Old Testament Nebuchadnezzar Ziggurat (right) Hanging gardens Geography : Geography This civ rose in the valleys between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Some say this Fertile Crescent was the real Garden of Eden. In what modern day country was the Fertile Crescent? : In what modern day country was the Fertile Crescent? Ur, the capital city of Mesopotamia : Ur, the capital city of Mesopotamia Political:What was the earliest kingdom in Mesopotamia? The second? : Political:What was the earliest kingdom in Mesopotamia? The second? Social : Social This is cuneiform. Babylonians wrote using this “wedge-shaped” writing on clay tablets. The Sumerians invented writing. More cuneiform writing : More cuneiform writing More ziggurats : More ziggurats Hanging gardens of Babylonia : Hanging gardens of Babylonia Another painting of the hanging gardens with Tower of Babel in back : Another painting of the hanging gardens with Tower of Babel in back Economic: trade and farming : Economic: trade and farming Sumerians (Mesopotamians) were known to trade with the Egyptians and the Indus Valley civilizations. In later years, these trade routes became Silk Road. Sumerians invented the wheel! : Sumerians invented the wheel! The wheel was invented by 6000 BC! It helped military, farming and trade. At right, this is made of wood. Political:Mesopotamian Law : Political:Mesopotamian Law Code of Hammurabi “eye for an eye tooth for a tooth” That concludes Mesopotamia. : That concludes Mesopotamia. Any questions before the quiz? Mesopotamia Quiz : Mesopotamia Quiz Political:What law system did Sumerians use? Hint: It can be summed: eye for eye; tooth for tooth. Economic: How did Mesopotamians earn a living? Geography:Between what 2 rivers did the Fertile Crescent appear? Social:What type of writing did they use? ANCIENT EGYPT : ANCIENT EGYPT Nile River Mummies Pharaohs Rameses King Tutankhamen Hieroglyphics Egyptian civilization : Egyptian civilization Egyptian civilization arose a bit after Mesopotamia. Geography: It was centered around the Nile River. The Nile River : The Nile River Pyramids : Pyramids These are the Giza pyramids, the most famous. Pyramids were tombs for the kings. These were built in 3500 B.C.E. How old are they? Political:Egyptian Pharaohs : Political:Egyptian Pharaohs Egyptians were led by Pharaohs. They were priest-kings King Tut is the most famous Using computers, this image was reconstructed using his remains Slide 27: Tutankhamun Tutankhamun on the throne : Tutankhamun on the throne Abu Simbel was built by Ramseses II : Abu Simbel was built by Ramseses II Mummies : Mummies Egyptians who could afford to do so would have themselves mummified. They believed in a better afterlife if their body was preserved. Slide 31: The Egyptians took out all of the internal organs, except the heart. When they removed them the organs were put in canopic jars, that were put in the tomb with the mummy. They did not take out the heart because it was believed to be the intelligence and emotion of the person. The Egyptians thought the brain had no significant value, so they took it out through the nose. The body was packed and covered with natron (a salty drying agent). After this the body was left for 40-50 days. Mummies : Mummies Egyptians wrote in hieroglyphics : Egyptians wrote in hieroglyphics Hieroglyphics : Hieroglyphics What did Egyptians write on? : What did Egyptians write on? Ancient Egyptians used papyrus, a substance derived from the plant of the same name The Great Sphinx is located on the Giza plateau, about six miles west of Cairo. : The Great Sphinx is located on the Giza plateau, about six miles west of Cairo. Nubia : Nubia People around the world have learnt about the glorious past of the Egyptian empire, but most have failed to learn of the Nubia, which was sometimes even stronger than the Egyptian empire. Nubia rivaled Egypt in wealth and power, and mutually influenced each other. Slide 38: The Egyptians called them the Kush. The Kush was comparable with Egypt, and both states communicated with each other constantly. Today we do not hear of Nubia nor Kush. In its place is nothern Sudan. With the construction of the Aswan high dam in the 1960s, Nubian land was flooded and that forced some 100,000 Nubians to seek new homes in Egyptian and Sudanese cities. Nubia's glorious past is now under water. The Great Sphinx & Cheferen : The Great Sphinx & Cheferen Egyptian economy : Egyptian economy Although Egypt looks really sophisticated, the economy is a traditional economy based on farming and trade. Egyptians traded up and down the Nile, with Mesopotamians and sometimes with Indus Valley (in Pakistan) That concludes Egypt. : That concludes Egypt. Any questions before the quiz? Egypt Quiz : Egypt Quiz 1.What river is the basis for Egyptian civilization? 2.What “paper” did Egyptians write on? 3. What is an Egyptian ruler called? 4.What writing system did Egyptians use? 5.What other African kingdom did Egypt trade and interact with? 6. What type of economic system did Egypt have? Indus Valley civilization : Indus Valley civilization G:What modern day countries was the Indus Valley civ in? : G:What modern day countries was the Indus Valley civ in? Indus River Valley : Indus River Valley This civ is still mysterious. The writing has not been translated. Indus River civilization : Indus River civilization We do know the cities were sophisticated enough to have brick walls surrounding them for protection against flooding from the Indus River. Various artifacts found : Various artifacts found What are artifacts? : What are artifacts? Indus Economy : Indus Economy Just like the other river valley civs, the Indus river valley people were mostly farmers. Traditional economy They did trade with Chinese and with Sumerians (Mesopotamians). That concludes Indus River Valley Civilization. : That concludes Indus River Valley Civilization. Get ready for the quiz. Indus River Quiz : Indus River Quiz P: Why do we know so little of the power structure in the Indus Valley? E: How did the Indus make a living? G:In what modern day country are the settlements of the Indus River Valley civilization? G:Why did the cities have so many walls? S: How do Indus artifacts demonstrate that the the the Indus Valley was sophisticated? ANCIENT CHINA : ANCIENT CHINA Great Wall Began 2000 B.C. Mandate of Heaven Dynasties Silk astronomy Slide 53: As in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and along the Indus River, Chinese civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the Yellow River Valley. Yellow River Civilization : Yellow River Civilization G:Ancient China was formed around the Yellow River. The color yellow symbolized “centrality”, as in China is the center of the world. Chinese accomplishments : Chinese accomplishments During the Zhou and Shang periods, the Chinese made remarkable achievements in astronomy and bronzework, learned to make silk and create books, and developed a complex system of writing E:Chinese invented silk : E:Chinese invented silk Silk was exotic and expensive, so it was good for trading with the rest of the world. It is made from silk worms. Silk also makes “paper” Silk worm : Silk worm S:Chinese astronomy : S:Chinese astronomy 2137 BC - Chinese book ?? records the earliest known solar eclipse on October 22. ca. 2000 BC - Chinese determine that Jupiter needs 12 years to complete one revolution of its orbit. ca. 1400 BC - Chinese record the regularity of solar and lunar eclipses and the earliest known solar variation??. ca. 1200 BC - Chinese divide the sky into twenty eight regions ???? for recognitions of the stars. ca. 1100 BC - Chinese first determine the spring equinox ????. 776 BC - Chinese make the earliest reliably record of solar eclipse. Slide 60: According to Chinese political theory, every dynasty goes through the so-called dynastic cycle: A new ruler unites China and founds a new dynasty. China, under the new dynasty, achieves prosperity and a new golden age. The royal family of the dynasty begins to decay, corruption becomes rampant in the imperial court, and the empire begins to enter decline and instability. The dynasty loses the Mandate of Heaven, their legitimacy to rule, and is overthrown by a rebellion. The Mandate of Heaven is then passed to the next dynasty Ancient China : Ancient China Chinese pyramids!!!! : Chinese pyramids!!!! The Great Wall of China was built to keep the Mongols out. : The Great Wall of China was built to keep the Mongols out. Many died building it, and their bodies were used as filler for it. : Many died building it, and their bodies were used as filler for it. That concludes China. : That concludes China. Any questions before we take the quiz? Ancient China Quiz : Ancient China Quiz P: In China, according to the dynastic cycle, what happened to “bad kings”? E: How did the Chinese earn a living? G: What river was the earliest Chinese civilization centered around? S: What technological advancements did the Chinese have? You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.