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Premium member Presentation Transcript The Classical World : The Classical World 1000 BCE – 500 CE Classical Civilizations : Classical Civilizations Mediterranean China India Persia Mediterranean : Mediterranean Classical Mediterranean civilization emphasized the Greek Tradition until the 4th century. This was followed by the period of Alexander the Greats conquests and the Hellenistic period, in which Greek cultural and political influences interacted with the traditions of Egypt and the Middle East. In its final phase the civilization’s emphasis shifted to Rome, the republican period and the empire, which became the most coherent geographic expression of the classical Mediterranean. ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL GREECE : ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL GREECE CIVILIZATION COMES TO EUROPE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY : PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY The Land Mountains dominate land; cross land travel difficult Fertile river valleys were center of settlement River valleys formed basis of polis No place more than a few miles from sea Outdoor life common due to temperate climate The Sea Greece is a series of peninsulas, islands Sea travel easier than land communication Most Greeks took to the sea Economy Agriculture: Grains, honey, olives, grapes Herding: Goats, sheep, cattle Trade: Necessary to make up for lack of resources PHYSICAL MAP OF AREA : PHYSICAL MAP OF AREA MINOAN SOCIETY : MINOAN SOCIETY Knossos Minoan society arose on Crete, late 3rd millennium B.C.E. Takes name from legendary king of Knossos, Minos Lavish palaces at Knossos, between 2000 and 1700 B.C.E. Linear A, a kind of written language, is found Island of Crete From 2200 to 1450 B.C.E., center of Mediterranean commerce Received early influences from Phoenicia and Egypt Established colonies on Cyprus and islands in the Aegean Sea Society Much evidence of egalitarian society; women had rights Agriculture was important: grapes, olives, fishing, wheat Trade was very important: marble, artifacts, cloth Decline of Minoan Society After 1700 B.C.E., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis After 1450 B.C.E., wealth attracted a number of invaders By 1100 B.C.E., Crete fell under foreign (Hellenic) domination THE ISLAND OF CRETE : THE ISLAND OF CRETE MYCENAEAN GREECE : MYCENAEAN GREECE Mycenaean society Indo-European immigrants settled in area, 2000 B.C.E. Adapted Minoan Linear A into their script Linear B Fortified agricultural settlements in Peloponnesus Most important settlement was Mycenae Society resembled Aryan: emphasis on war, trade Kingdoms ruled by strongest of nobles; constant strife Chaos in the eastern Mediterranean 1100 to 800 BCE Mycenaeans engaged in Trojan war, about 1200 B.C.E. Troy may have been a Hittite city-state and trade rival Tomb of Agamemnon, Troy excavated by von Schliemann Recorded by Homer in the Illiad and the Odyssey More invasions by Hellenic tribes “Sea Peoples” Later Hellenic invaders moved by sea along coasts Seemed to have raided into Palestine, Egypt as Philistines ANCIENT GREECE : ANCIENT GREECE THE GREEK DARK AGES : THE GREEK DARK AGES 800 TO 500 BCE Called Dark Ages due to loss of writing Age remembered through oral traditions A period of migration and warfare Hellenes spread to Italy, Sicily, Asia Minor, Cyprus The Hellenes Indo-Europeans who settled in area Tribes include Dorians, Attics, Achaeans Originally aristocratic societies Warfare, slavery, and trade common GREEK TRIBES : GREEK TRIBES THE POLIS : THE POLIS Greek City-State Polis = city-state; Poleis = city-states Metropolis = city of polis Acropolis = fortified center of city Boundaries shaped by geography Terms of politics come from POLIS Politics, politic, politician, polite, polity Police, metropolis, metroplex Most important Athens Sparta POLIS OF ATTICA : POLIS OF ATTICA POLITICAL FORMS : POLITICAL FORMS Archon: Greek for “ruler” – English “archy” Kratien: Greek for “to rule” – English “cracy” Demos: People – Democracy (direct election) Aristos: The Best – Aristocracy (nobles) Oligos: The Few – Oligarchy (rule by select few) Monos: One – Monarchy (rule by a king) Di: Two – Diarchy (Sparta’s state had 2 kings) An: None – Anarchy (No government) Theos: God – Theocracy (Rule by priests, religion) Geron: Old Man – Gerontocracy (rule by elderly) Pater: Father – Patriarchy (rule by males) Mater: Mother – Matriarchy (rule by women) Auto: Self – Autocracy (dictatorial rule) Tyrannos: Tyrant – Tyranny (rule by a dictator) Ethnos: Ethnic or locals – Ethnarchy (rule by the local people) SPARTA : SPARTA Sparta Situated in a fertile region of the Peloponnesus Began to extend control during the 8th and 7th centuries B.C.E. Reduced neighboring peoples to the status of helots, or servants By 6th century B.C.E., helots outnumbered Spartans by 10 to 1 Maintained domination by a powerful military machine Spartan society Discouraged social distinction, observed austere lifestyle Distinction was drawn by prowess, discipline, and military talent Commitment to military values was strong Society was a military aristocracy; state ruled by two kings Young boys, girls educated in military barracks After marriage, men still lived at barracks; women ran homes Women: surprisingly free in comparison to other Greek women All merchants were foreigners licensed by state LACONIA: SPARTA : LACONIA: SPARTA ATHENS : ATHENS Athens Population growth, economic development caused political strain Sought to negotiate order by democratic principles Citizenship was open to free adult males Foreigners, slaves, and women had no rights Athenian society Maritime trade brought about prosperity Aristocratic landowners were principal beneficiaries Owners of small plots began to sell lands, some became slaves Class tension became intensified, the 6th century B.C.E. Solon and Athenian democracy Solon forged a compromise between the classes Opened polis councils for any male citizen Made society more democratic Pericles (ca. 443-429 B.C.E.) The most popular democratic leader of Athens Ruled Athens during its Golden Age GREECE & THE LARGER WORLD : GREECE & THE LARGER WORLD Greeks founded more than 400 colonies Controlled Black, Aegean, Adriatic, Ionian Seas Settled Sicily, S. Italy, Corsica, France, Spain, Africa Settled Coasts of Yugoslavia, Albania, Turkey, Cyprus Effects of Greek colonization Facilitated trade among Mediterranean lands Facilitate exchanges between peoples, cultures Spread of Greek language and cultural traditions Stimulated development of surrounding areas Spread civilization to ancient, Neolithic areas Warfare increased Technology stimulated: naval, navigation, astronomy THE GREEK WORLD : THE GREEK WORLD GREEK MILITARY : GREEK MILITARY Based on citizen soldiers Lightly armed, armored foot soldiers (Hoplites) Carry shields, long spear All citizens had to furnish own arms, armor All citizens expected to fight in army, navy All citizens had military training in school Fought in massed formations called Phalanx Very useful in rugged terrain; used 10’ long pikes Easily defeats massed cavalry favored by others Greek navy Rowed vessels called galleys Most famous was the trireme or three oar banked Rowed by free citizens Fought by ramming other vessels; than hand to hand Greek fleets included larger vessels Equites or mounted troops were aristocrats THE PERSIAN WARS : THE PERSIAN WARS The Persian War (500-479 B.C.E.) Cyrus and Darius controlled Anatolia Greek cities on Ionian coast revolted, 500 B.C.E. Darius’ Invasion The battle of Marathon, 490 B.C.E. Greeks led by Spartans and Athens battled Persia to a draw Xerxes Invasion To fight Persians, Athenians build a wall of wood, or a navy Xerxes seized, burned Athens Athenian navy destroys Persian in the battle of Salamis, 480 B.C.E. Persian army retreated back to Anatolia, 479 B.C.E. The Delian League Alliance among Greek poleis against Persian threat Military force from Athens, finance from other poleis As Persian threat subsided, poleis no longer wanted to participate Athens uses navy to turn Delian League into Athenian Empire PELOPONNESIAN WAR : PELOPONNESIAN WAR Pericles Rebuilds Athens Athens experiences a Golden Age Pericles turns Delian states into Athenian colonies 30 Year Civil War (431-404 B.C.E.) Athens and Allies vs. Sparta and Allies Costly victories/defeats and plague wreck city Unconditional surrender of Athens, 404 B.C.E. Hegemony first by Sparta and then by Thebes Constant warfare between leagues, allies Spartan hegemony replaced by Theban Greece horribly weakened Athens remained intellectual center of Greece RISE OF MACEDONIA : RISE OF MACEDONIA The kingdom of Macedon A frontier state north of peninsular Greece Partially Hellenized society Philip of Macedon (re. 359-336 B.C.E.) Built a powerful army, overcame the power of clan leaders Began to offend Greece from 350 B.C.E. Brought Greece under control by 338 B.C.E. Murdered possibly by wife and son Alexander of Macedon and his conquests Educated by Aristotle; gifted in many areas At age 20, Alexander succeeded Philip Invaded Persia, controlled Ionia and Anatolia, 333 B.C.E. By 331 B.C.E., controlled Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia Invaded Persian homeland and burned Persepolis Crossed Indus River by 327 B.C.E. Died in 323 B.C.E. at age of 33 ALEXANDER’S EMPIRE : ALEXANDER’S EMPIRE HELLENISTIC EMPIRES : HELLENISTIC EMPIRES The Hellenistic Era: Age of Alexander and his successors Saw a blending of Hellenic (Greek) and Asian, Egyptian traditions A Greek layer of upper class ruled over an Asians, Egyptians The Antigonid empire in Greece, Macedonia and Thrace Continuous tension between the Antigonid rulers and Greek cities The economy of Athens flourished again through trade Overpopulation, many moved to the Seleucid empire The Ptolemaic empire ruled Egypt, Cyprus, often Holy Land The wealthiest of the Hellenistic empires Greek rulers did not interfere in Egyptian society Efficient organization of agriculture, industry, and taxation Royal monopolies over textiles, salt, and beer Alexandria The capital of Ptolemaic empire, at the mouth of the Nile Cultural center: the famous Alexandria Museum and Alexandria Library The Seleucid empire Mesopotamia, Persia, India More Greek influence than in Egypt Greek, Macedonian colonists flocked to new Greek Colonists created a Mediterranean-style urban society Parthians, Bactrians, Mauryans, Romans were all Hellenistic HELLENISTIC WORLD : HELLENISTIC WORLD INTEGRATION OF MEDITERRANEAN : INTEGRATION OF MEDITERRANEAN Trade Olive oil, wine, in exchange for grain and other items Trade brought prosperity, population growth, colonization Merchant ships with 400 tons capacity were common Some cities relied more on commerce than on agriculture Controlled slave markets of Eastern Mediterranean Trade rivalry with Carthage in North Africa Athenian silver drachma was common currency Panhellenic festivals Sense of being Greek prevailed among all Greeks Romans later admitted to Panhellenic, Olympic games Colonists shared the same religion and language Periodic panhellenic festivals reinforced their common bonds Olympic games, the best known panhellenic festival FAMILY AND SOCIETY : FAMILY AND SOCIETY Greek society in Homer's works Heroic warriors and outspoken wives in Homer's world Strong-willed human beings clashed constantly Highest achieve was arete Aristocracy (landed elites) vs. common Over years, aristocracy gradually came to control most states Held most of the social, political power Patriarchal society Male family heads ruled households, could abandon newborns Upper-class women wore veils in public, accompanied by servants Women could not own land but could operate small business Priestess was the only public position for women Spartan women enjoyed higher status than women of other poleis Common occupation of women was cloth making Slavery By law, slaves were private chattel property of their owners Worked as agricultural laborers, domestic servants Educated or skilled slaves worked as craftsmen, business managers Slaves were commonly prisoners of war RATIONALITY AND PHILOSOPHY : RATIONALITY AND PHILOSOPHY The formation of Greek cultural traditions From the 8th century, drew inspirations from Mesopotamia and Egypt About 800 B.C.E., adapted the Phoenicians' alphabet to their own language The Greek cultural feature: a philosophy based on human reason, rationality Socrates (470-399 B.C.E.) An Athenian philosopher, determined to understand human beings Encouraged reflection on ethics and morality Integrity was more important than wealth and fame "The unexamined life is not worth living" Critical scrutiny to traditional ethical teachings Was condemned to death on charge of corrupting Athenian youths Plato (430-347 B.C.E.) A zealous disciple of Socrates The theory of Forms or Ideas His Republic expressed the ideal of philosophical kings Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) Plato's disciple, but distrusted theory of Forms or Ideas Devised rules of logic to construct arguments; father of western science His Nicomedian Ethics became later basis in Christianity Legacy of Greek philosophy Intellectual authorities for European philosophers until 17th century Intellectual inspiration for Christian and Islamic theologians. Provided a powerful intellectual framework for future generations GREEK RELIGION & FINE ARTS : GREEK RELIGION & FINE ARTS Greek Polytheism Atheism considered treason, illogical Deities: Zeus, Athena, Apollo and many others Worship tied to patriotism and civics of the polis Public worship and house gods Various types of religious cults Dionysian Rites Oracle of Delphi The Theatre Tragic drama (Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides) Dramas performed at annual theatrical festivals Tragedians explored possibilities, limitations of human action Comic drama (Aristophanes) Lampooned public and political figures Art and Architecture Both were for public consumption and public enjoyment Balance, proportion and rationality part of design HELLENISTIC WORLD VIEWS : HELLENISTIC WORLD VIEWS Hellenistic philosophers Epicureans Identified pleasure as greatest good; freedom from turmoil, pressure Skeptics Doubted certainty of knowledge, sought equanimity Stoics Taught individuals duty to aid others, lead virtuous lives Emphasized inner moral independence and tranquillity Cultivated by strict discipline of the body and mind. Religions of salvation Many people felt no allegiance to old gods, beliefs Syncretism: Mixing of Greek, foreign beliefs Mystery religions Promised eternal bliss for true believers Foreign Cults Egyptian cult of Osiris became very popular Worship of Isis favored by women Speculation about a single, universal god emerged You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.