00-03-00nn-00-0000-handoff_WLAN_Cellular

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WLAN – Cellular Interworking : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 1 WLAN – Cellular Interworking Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor stephen.mccann@roke.co.uk

Who am I? : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 2 Who am I? I work for Siemens in the UK. I don’t represent ETSI, MMAC or any working group within it, nor does this presentation However, this is an attempt to be a non-partisan overview of previous interworking activities in ETSI, MMAC and IEEE 802.11

Coupling Approaches : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 3 Coupling Approaches Loosely, classify against two extremes: Re-use WLAN radio layer within existing public network Deploy public network services on WLAN network The ‘tight’ approaches are more specific, complex, functional (and disruptive to existing standards) The ‘loose’ approaches don’t rule out operators falling into the more specific categories Also, alternative directions for other mobile standards (CDMA etc.)

Previous work : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 4 Previous work

WLAN Standardisation : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 5 WLAN Standardisation } WIG

IEEE 802.11 & WIG : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 6 IEEE 802.11 & WIG Plenary Motion Approved in 2002 Move that the WNG Standing Committee requests the 802.11 WG to accept the invitation from ETSI-BRAN and MMAC to participate in the “WLAN – 3G and other Public Access networks “interworking” (WIG) project.

What was WIG all about ? : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 7 What was WIG all about ? To establish a joint-effort between 802.11 and ETSI BRAN/MMAC HSWA for the interworking of WLANs to 3G Cellular systems. 802.11 should be represented by its own interworking group.

Previous work : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 8 Previous work At engineering level, TGi already has similar approach to external authentication (EAPoL) to that of other WLAN standards (e.g. Hiperlan & HiSWAN) Previous interworking activities done by ETSI BRAN and MMAC HSWA have similar approach to that of 802.1x

WIG Intended Output ? : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 9 WIG Intended Output ? WIG Baseline Document Common text, which will then be passed based to recognised WLAN standards bodies (ETSI, IEEE & MMAC) for their regulatory approval. WIG cannot NOT approve final output

Why bother ? : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 10 Why bother ? To create a world wide standard for WLAN interworking with Cellular and Public Access networks. To encourage the proliferation of world wide WLAN hotspots, regardless of local regulatory constraints.

IEEE 802.11 activities : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 11 IEEE 802.11 activities Necessity to align interworking work from TGe, TGi, WNG and 802.1 Procedural requirement to establish some kind of interworking group within 802.11 to address these issues.

IEEE 802.11 Interworking : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 12 IEEE 802.11 Interworking No specific group in IEEE802.11 dedicated to interworking issues Many external activities in this area, 3GPP, 3GPP2, GSMA, WiFi Alliance all addressing interworking issues. Bits of interworking done in WNG, TGi, TGe, 802.1 (802.1x and 802.1aa)

IEEE 802.11Interworking Study GroupProposed Scope : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 13 IEEE 802.11Interworking Study GroupProposed Scope The scope of the study group is to consider whether there is a requirement to enhance the IEEE 802.11 standard (and amendments), to add interworking capability to both cellular and external IP based networks. The intention is to re-use the output of existing Task Groups to form a complete interworking solution, and to fill in any gaps.

Coupling : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 14 Coupling

Traditional Coupling Models : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 15 Traditional Coupling Models Loose Coupling Avoids use of core network gateways (e.g. SSGN) Applicable to many 2.5G, 3G systems Tight Coupling WLAN is an alternative UTRAN Specific to particular network technology Hybrid – bit of both

Control Plane Interworking : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 16 Control Plane Interworking Defines a ‘control plane only’ convergence layer Handles primarily AAA issues Can authenticate using SIM or other identifier Focus is on security and roaming support Intra-network mobility and QoS are handled in ‘user plane’

Architecture : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 17 Architecture

Control & User Plane Interworking : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 18 Control & User Plane Interworking WLAN becomes a ‘peer’ RAN to UTRAN Similar status to GERAN for GSM/GPRS Re-use many UMTS functions as is (e.g. idle mode?) Covers the complete security/mobility/QoS problem, using UTRA-like internal model Retains 3GPP Iu interface, mainly unmodified Whole family of new WLAN related interfaces IurWLAN, IubWLAN – network internal UuWLAN – extensions or changes to air interface protocols (mainly in RLC layer)

Architecture : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 19 Architecture Similar interface methodology to UTRAN Can extend to very seamless UTRA-WLAN handover (dual mode terminals)

Implications : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 20 Implications Strong dependencies on what mobile network considered Even on UMTS release number (R5, R6) Strong dependencies on WLAN technology Simpler AN functionality – Core does much more of the work Significantly greater impact on WLAN and non-WLAN standards (apparently) Re-engineering of one to fit into the assumptions of the other

Architecture detail : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 21 Architecture detail

Slide 22: 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 22 Interworking architecture

Slide 23: 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 23 Service providers net AP MT WLAN AN HL2/HiSWANa 802.11i Phy DLC/RLC DLC/RLC Phy

Security Issues : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 24 Security Issues Working assumption to use EAP Method for transport of EAP over air is defined Support for SIM/USIM authentication required by 2G/3G operators But also required that this is not the only mechanism AKA extension (i-d) for mapping 2G/3G messages to EAP

Accounting and Charging : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 25 Accounting and Charging System level requirements : Basic access/session (pay by subscription) Access/session duration Credit card access/session/ Not real time pre paid Calendar and time related charging Duration dependent charging Flat rate Volume of transferred packet traffic Multiple rate charge Useful features Rate of transferred packet traffic (Vol/sec). Toll free (like a 0800 call) Premium rate access/session Real time Pre-paid

Inter-System Handover Issues : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 26 Inter-System Handover Issues Inter-system handover is a very hard problem Weakly supported in loose coupling case Basically network reselection by terminal Terminal has to accept that it will get a new IP address with implications for session continuity Possible in tight coupling case but very hard IurWLAN very complex and interacts strongly with existing equipment Main gain comes from joint management of the radio resource (but main pain also) MobileIP is always a fall-back (and near-transparent) Affects only multi-mode terminals anyway Need in public environment needs to be examined

Quality of Service : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 27 Quality of Service If anything, can be even more complex than security and mobility Loose coupling approach leaves most options open (TGe etc) Tight coupling leverages UMTS QoS architecture Need to distinguish carefully: What the operator wants to do What the user wants to do What the user’s applications are capable of doing

Way Forward : 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 28 Way Forward 802 Handoff produces generic solution to homogeneous and heterogeneous interworking. 802.11 Interworking group (?) studies specific problems related to Cellular interworking.

Slide 29: 

November 2003 Stephen McCann, Siemens Roke Manor Slide 29

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