Dog Evolution

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Evolution & Phylogeny of the Modern Dog : 

Evolution & Phylogeny of the Modern Dog Courtney Wilson Biology 7 December 5, 2010

Why Researchers Are Interested? : 

Why Researchers Are Interested? The domesticated dog is a long running genetic experiment Dogs are the most phenotypically diverse species on the planet Artificial selection plays a role, but researchers are interested in the mechanisms that have allowed for short-term evolution to occur so quickly.

Taxonomy : 

Taxonomy Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Canidae Genus & Species: Canis lupus familiaris

Morphology : 

Morphology Researchers are beginning to figure out which genes control what, but are still trying to understand the mechanisms of control. The canine genome can teach us how genes in other animals are able to construct phenotypic variation.

Morphology : 

Morphology This species varies greatly in size and shape

Morphology : 

Morphology Differences in color and fur/coat type

Morphology : 

Morphology Other morphological differences include: wrinkling, limb length, ear type, etc.

Molecular and genetic evidence support descent with modification : 

Molecular and genetic evidence support descent with modification

Evolution : 

Evolution Genetic data indicates that all dogs evolved from grey wolves, and recently have been traced to the Middle East. Twelve “ancient” breeds, are thought to have emerged over 500 years ago and share more genetic similarities with wolves than the modern breeds. The other ~200(+) breeds are considered “modern” because they didn’t emerge until the Victorian Era and are genetically rather similar.

Ancient Breeds : 

Ancient Breeds Some of these breeds are truly ancient, for example the Chow chow dates back over 2,000 years ago

Methods of Research : 

Methods of Research Researchers compare the genomes of multiple breeds at thousands of different locations called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) A recent UCLA study compared dogs from 85 different breeds at over 48,000 SNPs.

DNA Testing & Breed Identification : 

DNA Testing & Breed Identification Breed can now be determined by DNA Now you can find out which breeds make up your mixed breed A simple cheek swab can determine the primary, secondary, and tertiary breeds

My Sister’s Dog: A case study : 

My Sister’s Dog: A case study Xena was a pound puppy The animal shelter thought she was a German Shepherd or Rottweiler mix As Xena grew up, she didn’t show either breed’s characteristics

What the DNA revealed: : 

What the DNA revealed: Xena is Chow chow, Shar pei, and Cocker Spanial Results are accurate because Xena has purple spots on her tongue and under her fur are some minor Shar-pei wrinkles

Hope you enjoyed it!!! : 

Hope you enjoyed it!!! Feel free to ask any questions you might have in the comments section.

Sources : 

Sources Akey, Joshua M., Alison L. Ruhne, et. al. (2010). "Tracking footprints of artificial selection in the dog genome." PNAS 107:1160-1165. <http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/20>. Boyko, Adam R., Pascale Quignon, et al. (2010). "A Simple Genetic Architecture Underlies Morphological Variation in Dogs." PLoS Biology 8:1-12. <www.plosbiology.org> Honeycutt, Rodney L. (2010). "Unraveling the mysteries of dog evolution." BMC Biology 8:20. <http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/20>. Parker, Heidi G., et al. (2004). "Genetic Structure of the Purebred Domestic Dog." Science 304: 1160 -1164. <www.sciencemag.org> vonHoldt, Bridgett M., John P. Pollinger, et. al. (2010) "Genome-wide SNP and haplotype analyses reveal a rich history underlying dog domestication" Nature 464: 898-902. <www.nature.com>

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