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CMMI Technology Conference and User Group 17-20 November 2003 Experiences with Leveraging Six Sigma to Implement CMMI Levels 4 and 5 Jeff Facemire & Hortensia Silva Northrop Grumman

What is the Essence of Level 4? : 

Copyright 2003 Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp. All Rights Reserved. 2 What is the Essence of Level 4? In our last Peer Review, we: Reviewed 40 SLOC / Review Hour Others have been able to review >100 SLOC/hour Found 15 defects with 1½ hours of prep time and 4 reviewers Reviewed 75 SLOC As a manager, do I make any changes???

What is the Essence of Level 4? : 

Copyright 2003 Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp. All Rights Reserved. 3 What is the Essence of Level 4? 71% reduction in # of SLOC reviewed per prep hour 0 As a manager, do I make any changes yet???

What Kind of Skills are Needed? : 

Copyright 2003 Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp. All Rights Reserved. 4 What Kind of Skills are Needed? To accomplish Levels 4 and 5, you must be capable of: Statistical thinking Analyzing causes Process thinking Focusing on what is important to the customer Understanding “capability” Affecting improvement These skills are essential for successfully implementing Levels 4 and 5 Six Sigma provides the foundation for how to solve relevant problems!!

CMMI Levels 4 and 5 (Required Skills) : 

Copyright 2003 Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp. All Rights Reserved. 5 CMMI Levels 4 and 5 (Required Skills) Level 4 1) Project’s process capabilities based on process performance baselines 2) Control process variation (removing “assignable causes”) 3) Predict results using process performance models 4) Manage to achieve goals Level 5 1) Improvement goals based on future business needs 2) Eliminate problem and defect causes (“common causes”) 3) Select, predict, and measure improvements to change the process performance baselines - Shift the mean; tighten the variance 4) Manage change Process performance Control Predict Improve ESSENCE OF LEVELS 4 AND 5:

What is Six Sigma?? : 

Copyright 2003 Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp. All Rights Reserved. 6 What is Six Sigma?? Six Sigma: A best-in-class change strategy for accelerating improvements in processes, products, and services What Six Sigma is:? Method/tools? Mindset/way of thinking? A way of doing business

6? DMAIC Process : 

Copyright 2003 Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp. All Rights Reserved. 7 6? DMAIC Process DMAIC = Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control

Aligning the 6? DMAIC Process with the CMMI : 

Copyright 2003 Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp. All Rights Reserved. 8 Aligning the 6? DMAIC Process with the CMMI

Aligning the 6? DMAIC Process with CMMI Practices for the Project : 

Copyright 2003 Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp. All Rights Reserved. 9 Aligning the 6? DMAIC Process with CMMI Practices for the Project QPM SP 1.1 Establish the Project’s Objectives QPM SP 1.3 Select the Subprocesses that Will Be Statistically Managed QPM SP 1.2 Compose the Defined Process QPM SP 1.4 Manage Project Performance QPM SP 2.1 Select Measures and Analytic Techniques QPM CAR QPM SP 2.2 Apply Statistical Methods to Understand Variation QPM SP 2.4 Record Statistical Management Data QPM SP 2.3 Monitor Performance of the Selected Subprocesses CAR SP 1.1 Select Defect Data for Analyses CAR SP 2.1 Implement the Action Proposals CAR SP 1.2 Analyze Causes CAR SP 2.2 Evaluate the Effect of Changes CAR SP 2.3 Record Data 6? technologies (noted in Red) assist with these activities Illustrated examples

Special Cause Analysis(QPM SP 2.2) : 

Copyright 2003 Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp. All Rights Reserved. 10 Special Cause Analysis(QPM SP 2.2) Example Data

Control Charts (QPM SP 2.3) : 

Copyright 2003 Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp. All Rights Reserved. 11 Control Charts (QPM SP 2.3) Tool: Minitab used across 6? and CMMI projects Example Data

CAR Watchlist (CAR SP 1.1) : 

Copyright 2003 Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp. All Rights Reserved. 12 CAR Watchlist (CAR SP 1.1) Example Data

CAR Worksheet (CAR SP 2.3) : 

Copyright 2003 Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp. All Rights Reserved. 13 CAR Worksheet (CAR SP 2.3) CAR briefing template accompanies this CAR worksheet Can be used in lieu of a Six Sigma tollgate briefing for CAR status Organized by CAR specific practices Example Data

Six Sigma Training : 

Copyright 2003 Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp. All Rights Reserved. 14 Six Sigma Training Excerpts from standard Green Belt Six Sigma training: Business Case development Voice of the Customer (Critical to Quality items) Basic Statistics and Sampling Data distributions Representative samples Patterns in Data – Variation Special vs common causes Stratification of data Run charts, control charts Organizing Causes Hypothesis Testing / Regression Analysis Use of statistical analysis tools are included throughout this training!

Using the Six Sigma Fundamentals : 

Copyright 2003 Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp. All Rights Reserved. 15 Using the Six Sigma Fundamentals The fundamentals of Six Sigma can be used without running a “formal” Six Sigma project Statistical analysis and control of Level 3 data Capability Statistical control Regression Improvement in “capability” can be identified Root cause analysis techniques can be applied Regression Fishbone diagrams Pareto analysis Affinity diagrams

The Bottom Line : 

Copyright 2003 Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp. All Rights Reserved. 16 The Bottom Line Northrop Grumman was able to accelerate achievement of Levels 4 and 5 using Six Sigma Six Sigma training was essential to changing the culture of process improvement Six Sigma methodology was institutionalized 5 months after achieving their Level 3 rating, Northrop Grumman achieved their Level 4 rating 4 months after achieving their Level 4 rating, Northrop Grumman achieved their Level 5 rating

Six Sigma for the Organizational Process Areas : 

Copyright 2003 Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp. All Rights Reserved. 17 Six Sigma for the Organizational Process Areas Organizational Process Areas Level 4: Organizational Process Performance (OPP) Level 5: Organizational Innovation and Deployment (OID) The same Six Sigma methodology was used by Northrop Grumman for the OPP and OID process areas

Questions? : 

Copyright 2003 Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp. All Rights Reserved. 18 Questions?

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