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Erik Erikson: The Life-Span Approach : 

Erik Erikson: The Life-Span Approach

Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development : 

Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development 8 successive stages over the lifespan Addresses bio, social, situational, personal influences Crisis: must adaptively or maladaptively cope with task in each developmental stage Respond adaptively: acquire strengths needed for next developmental stage Respond maladaptively: less likely to be able to adapt to later problems Basic strengths: Motivating characteristics and beliefs that derive from successful resolution of crisis in each stage

Stage 1: Basic Trust vs. Mistrust : 

Stage 1: Basic Trust vs. Mistrust Birth to age 1 Totally dependent on others Caregiver meets needs: child develops trust Caregiver does not meet needs: child develops mistrust Basic strength: Hope Belief our desires will be satisfied Feeling of confidence

Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt : 

Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Ages 1-3 Child able to exercise some degree of choice Child’s independence is thwarted: child develops feelings of self-doubt, shame in dealing with others Basic Strength: Will Determination to exercise freedom of choice in face of society’s demands

Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt : 

Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt Ages 3-5 Child expresses desire to take initiative in activities Parents punish child for initiative: child develops feelings of guilt that will affect self-directed activity throughout life Basic strength: Purpose Courage to envision and pursue goals

Stage 4: Industriousness vs. Inferiority : 

Stage 4: Industriousness vs. Inferiority Ages 6-11 Child develops cognitive abilities to enable in task completion (school work, play) Parents/teachers do not support child’s efforts: child develops feelings of inferiority and inadequacy Basci strength: Competence Exertion of skill and intelligence in pursuing and completing tasks

Slide 7: 

Stages 1-4 Largely determined by others (parents, teachers) Stages 5-8 Individual has more control over environment Individual responsibility for crisis resolution in each stage

Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion : 

Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion Ages 12-18 Form ego identity: self-image Strong sense of identity: face adulthood with certainty and confidence Identity crisis: confusion of ego identity Basic strength: Fidelity Emerges from cohesive ego identity Sincerity, genuineness, sense of duty in relationships with others

Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation : 

Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation Ages 18-35 (approximately) Undertake productive work and establish intimate relationships Inability to establish intimacy leads to social isolation Basic strength: Love Mutual devotion in a shared identity Fusing of oneself with another person

Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation : 

Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation Ages 35-55 (approximately) Generativity: Active involvement in teaching/guiding the next generation Stagnation involves not seeking outlets for generativity Basic strength: Care Broad concern for others Need to teach others

Stage 8: Ego Integrity vs. Despair : 

Stage 8: Ego Integrity vs. Despair Ages 55+ Evaluation of entire life Integrity: Look back with satisfaction Despair: Review with anger, frustration Basic strength: Wisdom Detached concern with the whole of life

Assessment in Erikson’s Theory : 

Assessment in Erikson’s Theory Psychohistorical Analysis Application of lifespan theory to lives of historical figures Psychological Tests: Instruments based on crises in stages

Research in Erikson’s Theory : 

Research in Erikson’s Theory Trust Early strong bonds with mother later were more curious, sociable and popular Identity Strong identity associated with greater cognitive and emotional functioning in college students Crisis may begin later than age 12 Continuing process over the lifespan

Research in Erikson’s Theory : 

Research in Erikson’s Theory Generativity Evokes need to feel closer to others Correlated with extraversion, openness to new experiences Likely to be involved in community, social relationships

Research in Erikson’s Theory : 

Research in Erikson’s Theory Maturity High ego integrity: spent much time reviewing their lives Ethnic Identity Ethnic minorities: ethnic identity significant factor in determining sense of self

Contributions of Erikson : 

Contributions of Erikson Personality develops throughout the lifetime Identity crisis in adolescence Impact of social, cultural, personal and situational forces in forming personality

Criticisms of Erikson : 

Criticisms of Erikson Ambiguous terms and concepts Lack of precision Some terms are not easily measured empirically Experiences in stage may only apply to males Identity crisis may only apply to those affluent enough to explore identities

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