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Slide 1: 

Well-Being of Planet Earth Ed Diener Smiley Distinguished Professor of Psychology, University of Illinois Senior Scientist, Gallup 4th European Conference on Positive Psychology July 1- 4, 2008 Rijeka, Croatia

My Gratitude to: : 

My Gratitude to: The Gallup Organization

Gallup World PollFirst Survey of Planet Earth : 

Gallup World PollFirst Survey of Planet Earth 130+ nations Representative samples 130,000+ respondents Rural areas sampled The best poll of world ever taken Represents 96% of globe’s population

Objective conditions? : 

Objective conditions? Have gone hungry this year 24% Cannot afford housing 21% Smoked yesterday 21% Unemployed 13% Assaulted past year 8% Infant morality 4% Life expectancy 68 years

Modern conveniences: : 

Modern conveniences: Running water in home 72% Electricity in home 83% T.V. in home 74% Computer in home 26%

Signs for optimism, yet Need for improvement!-- Most evident in juxtaposing nations : 

Signs for optimism, yet Need for improvement!-- Most evident in juxtaposing nations

Cannot Afford Housing : 

Cannot Afford Housing Finland 3 % Ireland 4 % United Kingdom 6 % Switzerland 8 % Denmark 9 % Germany 10 % France 11 % Spain 13 % Belarus 40 % Sierra Leone 62 %

Striking Disparities! : 

Striking Disparities! Longevity Japan 82 years Botswana 36 years Smoking Nigeria 5% Cuba 39% Assaulted Past Year Japan .4% Burundi 33% Gone Hungry Past Year Austria .4% Chad 78%

How are we doing on Subjective Well-being? : 

How are we doing on Subjective Well-being? Ladder of life Positive Emotions Negative Emotions Satisfaction with Important Domains

Slide 10: 

0: Worst Possible Life 10: Best Possible Life 9 7 8 6 5 4 3 2 1

High on Ladder : 

High on Ladder Denmark 8.0 Switzerland 7.5 Netherlands 7.5 Canada 7.4 New Zealand 7.3 United States 7.2 Venezuela 7.2

Slide 13: 

Lowest Life Ladder Togo 3.2 Cambodia 3.6 Sierra Leone 3.6 Georgia 3.7 Zimbabwe 3.8 West Bank 4.7

More Europe : 

More Europe U.K. 7.0 Italy 6.9 Germany 6.6 Czech. Rep. 6.4 Greece 6.1 Poland 5.6 Croatia 5.4 Portugal 5.4 Serbia 4.6 Albania 4.6

Affect Yesterday : 

Affect Yesterday Unpleasant Emotions Anger Sad and depressed Worried and stressed Pleasant Emotions Enjoyment Smiling and laughing

Pleasant Emotions—Enjoyment etc. : 

Pleasant Emotions—Enjoyment etc. High Low New Zealand Armenia Honduras Pakistan Panama Bangladesh Costa Rica Palestine Puerto Rico Tajikistan

Unpleasant Emotions—Sad, Angry, Depressed, etc. : 

Unpleasant Emotions—Sad, Angry, Depressed, etc. Highest Lowest Armenia Denmark Palestine Sweden Bolivia Austria Sierra Leone Japan Percent feelings lots yesterday ~ 40 % ~ 13 %

Satisfaction with domains(Health, standard of living, city, job) : 

Satisfaction with domains(Health, standard of living, city, job) High Low Denmark Zimbabwe Switzerland Haiti Singapore Tanzania

Dissatisfied with Standard of Living : 

Dissatisfied with Standard of Living Ukraine Georgia Romania Russia Zimbabwe Most satisfied: Ireland

Planetary SWB Scorecard : 

Planetary SWB Scorecard Evaluating life 40 percent dissatisfied 40 percent doing fine 20 percent doing very well Affect Balance (PA – NA) 20 % negative 30 % positive 50 % very positive

What Predicts the Good Society? : 

What Predicts the Good Society?

Slide 22: 

Ladder of Life evaluation correlates with: GDP per person (wealth) r = .83 Meeting basic needs (food etc.) r = .77

Does Anything Cause Quality of Life Other than Money? : 

Does Anything Cause Quality of Life Other than Money?

Beyond Money: Predicting National Levels of Ladder of Life : 

Beyond Money: Predicting National Levels of Ladder of Life Regression Betas GDP/Capita .43 Optimism .37 Can count on others .25

Beyond Money:Predicting National Positive Emotions(Betas – all but GDP significant) : 

Beyond Money:Predicting National Positive Emotions(Betas – all but GDP significant) GDP/capita -.03 Count on someone for help .18 Freedom to choose .26 Learned something yesterday .68

Beyond Money: Nation-level Unpleasant Emotions : 

Beyond Money: Nation-level Unpleasant Emotions Betas Income .15 Control of corruption -.36 Assaulted .27

Happiness and Money? : 

Happiness and Money? Is it basic needs like food and water? Or modern conveniences like electricity, telephones, and the internet?

Slide 29: 

Ladder of Life Beta Basic needs (food and shelter) .27 Modern conveniences (telly etc.) .58 Positive Affect Basic needs (food and shelter) .37 Modern conveniences (telly etc.) -.19

Strongest Correlates: : 

Strongest Correlates: Ladder of life Modern conveniences (electricity etc.) Pleasant Emotions People I can count on Unpleasant Emotions Assaulted past year

Cannot Afford Medical Care : 

Cannot Afford Medical Care Japan 4 % Canada 8 % Jordan 15 % Iran 19 % USA 20 % Turkey 45 % Romania 50 %

Well-Being Accounts for Policy Use : 

Well-Being Accounts for Policy Use These could enormously benefit positive psychology

Examples of Policies : 

Examples of Policies Economic Satisfying work, unemployment Health Mental health Social School checkups, sex work, discrimination Environmental Airport noise, air pollution, commuting

Existing Societal Measures of Well-Being : 

Existing Societal Measures of Well-Being Organization of Econ. Cooperation & Development Statistics Canada GSOEP (Germany) BHPS (U.K.) Center for Disease Control (U.S.) United Nations?

But what about: Adaptation? Personal, not societal?

Affect Adaptation? : 

Affect Adaptation? Enjoyment, laughing, smiling Pakistan 47% v. New Zealand 88% Anger, sadness, worry, and depression Denmark 12% v. Iran 43%

Slide 38: 

Conclusions National accounts of well-being can help policy makers create better societies, and Help positive psychologists prove their value

Two Extremely Important Psychological Points : 

Two Extremely Important Psychological Points Circumstances and conditions matter a LOT; it is not just individual set-point. We need stronger positive societal science! Life evaluation and affect have different predictors -- Wanting versus liking

Take-Home for Positive Psychology : 

Take-Home for Positive Psychology PP has placed an emphasis on internal determinants But society, neighborhoods, organizations are also important. More development of organizational PP needed. Social psychology emphasizes the “power of the situation” Happiness is within people, but also in their circumstances too

More Take-Home Messages : 

More Take-Home Messages 1. Life evaluation seems like “Wanting,” whereas affect is “Liking” 2. Money should not be dismissed as unimportant. But it does not completely predict the Ladder, and certainly not PA and NA, where social factors are more important. 3. We need accounts of well-being!

Diener, Lucas,Schimmack, & Helliwell : 

Diener, Lucas,Schimmack, & Helliwell Well-being for Public Policy Oxford University Press, 2009

Slide 43: 

“The most authoritative and informative book about happiness ever ^ written”

Handout overheads in frontThank you, and: : 

Handout overheads in frontThank you, and: Questions? Comments? Discussion?

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