childhood growth and development ch 7

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Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood : 

Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Childhood Growth and Development Chapter 7

Assignment- Next class : 

Assignment- Next class Read about 4, 5, and 6-year-olds in the “Yarksticks” book In-class activity- please bring your book

Physical Development : 

Physical Development Between age 3-6: Improvements in motor/fine motor coordination Height/weight increases; 2-3 inches per year

Nutrition and Childhood Obesity : 

Nutrition and Childhood Obesity 1999-2002: more than 10% of children between the ages of 2-5 were overweight Overrepresented children: low SES, Latino/minority children Role of heredity and *environment*

Childhood Obesity : 

Childhood Obesity Sedentary lifestyles, poor diets, inappropriate portions At risk for becoming overweight adults Research: 1 additional hour of physical education could reduce obesity in kindergarten/1st grade girls by half

Malnutrition : 

Malnutrition 27% of kids worldwide are malnourished and underweight Impacts physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development Correlated with low academic performance

Malnutrition : 

Malnutrition Effective interventions address nutrition and psychosocial development Teaching mothers about cognitive development, social interaction with their children

Sleep in Early Childhood : 

Sleep in Early Childhood Long periods in REM sleep US kids- average 11 hours of sleep Night terrors/nightmares/enuresis

Improvements in Fine Motor Skills : 

Improvements in Fine Motor Skills Ability to draw shapes and complex patterns Greater accuracy in children’s drawings

Health and Safety : 

Health and Safety US: accidents are the leading cause of death for children between 3-6 Ingestion of toxins/medications

Poverty as a Risk Factor : 

Poverty as a Risk Factor Low SES raises a child’s risk of illness, injury, and death In the US, 1 in 5 children under the age of 6 are poor

Poverty as a Risk Factor : 

Poverty as a Risk Factor Disproportionately affects minority children Children in poverty: chronic health problems (asthma, anemia, more likely to be absent from school)

Poverty as a Risk Factor : 

Poverty as a Risk Factor Lack of access to health insurance: the working poor Health problems are not addressed as quickly in low SES children Language barriers impact medical treatment: Latino and Asian children

Homelessness : 

Homelessness 1.35 million kids are homeless in the US each year Families: 40% of the homeless population Often single mothers fleeing domestic violence

Exposure to Toxins : 

Exposure to Toxins Parental smoking increases a child’s risk for health problems, cancer in adulthood Environmental toxins- related to neurological problems, cancer, and psychological problems in early childhood

Exposure to Lead : 

Exposure to Lead Lead exposure interferes with cognitive development Neurological problems from toxicity The impact may be irreversible

Cognitive Development : 

Cognitive Development Piaget: Preoperational Stage (2-7) Egocentrism Make believe/pretend play- symbolic thought Language burst

False Beliefs : 

False Beliefs Candy box experiment: Children are asked what is in the box- “candy”; crayons are actually in the box The child believes the other children will know to expect crayons in the box: egocentrism?

Fantasy and Reality : 

Fantasy and Reality By age 3, children become better at distinguishing between reality and fantasy Thought distortions/confusion about this still occurs

Social Skills : 

Social Skills Children with good social skills are better at understanding the thoughts/emotions of others Improved perspective taking Parents can encourage this through discussions of psychological/emotional states

Homework Assignment : 

Homework Assignment Basic Processes and Capacities Recognition/Recall Forming Childhood Memories Social Interaction, Culture, Memory Traditional Psychometric Measures Influences on Measured Intelligence Pg. 258-264

Assessment: Vygotsky’s Perspective : 

Assessment: Vygotsky’s Perspective Dynamic Testing: Based on the zone of proximal development What can the child achieve through guided learning Focus on process, not a test score

Vocabulary Burst : 

Vocabulary Burst Fast mapping: a child picks up on the approximate definition of a work after hearing it once or twice Children learn words through the context of a conversation

Grammar/Syntax : 

Grammar/Syntax Improves between the ages of 3-6 Overgeneralization still occurs

Language Delays : 

Language Delays Potential reasons: Cognitive limitations Problems with fast mapping Hearing problems Many children do catch up

Kindergarten : 

Kindergarten Many part of the US have turned toward full day kindergarten Children in full day kindergarten do better academically than half-day children, though this eventually evens out