Animal Testing and Medicine : Animal Testing and Medicine Is the use of animal testing in medical studies ethical?
Peter St. George
2010 Purpose of Animal Testing : Purpose of Animal Testing “Gain basic biological knowledge
Fundamental medical research
Discovery and development of drugs, vaccines and medical devices
Toxicity testing of drugs and other chemicals1” History and Background : History and Background Animal models used since the beginning of medical progression2
Aristotle and Hippocrates studied the structure and function of human body through animal subjects2
Animals have been used for the testing of everything from cosmetics3 to chemotherapy drugs4
Presently 75-100 million vertebrates are used each year5
70% of these animals used for testing of vaccines, cancer research, drug research and other biological studies5 Arguments Against Animal Testing : Arguments Against Animal Testing It is morally wrong to kill animals for educational purposes6
Should humans be able to cause pain and death for the betterment of our race?
Do we have the right as humans to end the life of an animal to improve and save the lives of our own species? Arguments Against Animal Testing : Arguments Against Animal Testing Animals are not an accurate model of humans7
Humans anatomy differs from that of laboratory animals7
Humans mature differently than laboratory animals
ex.-Sensory and reflex functions are developed at birth in humans but underdeveloped in laboratory species7 Arguments Against Animal Testing : Arguments Against Animal Testing Animal testing is barbaric
In 2003, it was uncovered that Columbia University committed gross animal abuse in their study examining the menstrual cycles of baboons8
Baboons were found with metal cylinders screwed to their heads, blood dripping down the sides8
Medical procedures, including amputation, were completed without pain medication8
Baboons were found to have torn off fingers due to stress and anxiety8 Arguments Against Animal Testing : Arguments Against Animal Testing Too many animals are killed
In the Australian state of New South Wales, it was reported that the following animals were killed during one year of trials
14 horses—3,000 fish—379 sheep—59 cows—nearly 1000 chickens—8 Stripe-Faced Dunnarts (an endangered marsupial) —unnumbered birds and guinea pigs9
All totaling 8,813 animals9
Public money should not be used for animal testing
Many medical studies and experiments are carried out at universities10 Arguments in Favor Of Animal Testing : Arguments in Favor Of Animal Testing Medical professionals support animal research
2006 survey found 96% of general practitioners surveyed agreed animal testing has made important contributions to medical advances11
Same survey found 88% of general practitioners surveyed felt that recently developed medicines should be tested on animals before human consumption or testing11 Arguments in Favor Of Animal Testing : Arguments in Favor Of Animal Testing Animal testing is greatly regulated
IACUC (Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee) overlooks the scientific use of animals12
Accepts or denies scientific usages proposal13
Inspects lab animal facilities13
Strives to save animals from unnecessary testing and use, requiring quick and effective pain relief13
IACUC’s regulations must be complied with for all laboratory animal use in America12 Arguments in Favor Of Animal Testing : Arguments in Favor Of Animal Testing Animal testing is greatly regulated
Also regulating animal testing are:
The Public Health Service14
Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare14
The Animal Welfare Act (as amended in 1985)
Animal testing is becoming transparent
Ex. In 2005 the UK passed the UK Freedom of Information Act11
Overviews of all new animal research projects in Britain are published and posted on a government website available to general public11 Arguments in Favor Of Animal Testing : Arguments in Favor Of Animal Testing Animal testing has contributed to important gains in human medicine and biomedical research
Contributed to advances in psychotherapy, neuromuscular disorders, Parkinson’s disease, and animal welfare, among others15
Contributed to 74% of all important biomedical advances between 1901 and 197515
71% of 82 Nobel Prizes awarded between 1902 and 1985 for Medicine or Physiology required animal experimentation15 Synthesis : Synthesis The 3R’s
Replacement, Reduction, Refinement
Replacement of animals with nonliving models16
Reduction in the use of animals16
Refinement of animal use practices16
Studies cost less
Time saved within studies
Animals saved from death and possible pain/suffering Questions to Ponder : Questions to Ponder If Con Animal Testing
What is your proposed alternative?
Human testing? No testing? Computer simulations and inanimate models are not accurate in all situations.
Have you stepped inside a hospital, received medical treatment, or medicines? Have you hoped a loved one with a cancer or another deadly disease received modern treatment?
Is this not hypocritical?
Has the medical field progressed to a point where it can cease to develop medicines, medical devices and new treatments? Questions to Ponder : Questions to Ponder If Pro Animal Testing
Are we as humans morally superior to all other beings?
Should we be able to cause pain, maim and kill other beings for the betterment of our society?
Do we have the right to end the life of animals to improve and save the lives of our own species? Conclusions : Conclusions Use of animal testing is essential to the progression of modern medicine, and in turn the progression of our society and race
Elimination of animal testing would significantly set back development of essential medical devices, medicines and treatment
However, 3R’s must be employed
IACUC and other governing bodies must be upheld, respected and enforced Conclusions : Conclusions “The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the ways its animals are treated.”~Mahatma Ghandi
By employing the 3R’s and continuing to use animals for scientific purposes we establish our nation as great and our moral progress as sound, while the medical and scientific community continues to uphold its obligation to humanity to further the advancement of their respective fields. Works Cited : Works Cited 1. Gordon, N., K. Taylor, N. Gordon, G. Langley, and W. Higgins. 2008. Estimates for worldwide laboratory animal use in 2005. ATLA 36, 327–342.
2. Baumans, V. 2005. Science-based assessment of animal welfare: laboratory animals. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz., 24 (2) 503-514.
3. Cohen, C. , M. K. Robinson, A. de Brugerolle de Fraissinette, M. Ponec, E. Whittle and J. H. Fentem. 2002. Non-animal testing strategies for assessment of the skin corrosion and skin irritation potential of ingredients and finished products. J. Food & Chem. Tox. 40 (5), 573-592.
4. Andrade S. G., J. B. Magalhaes, and A. L. Pontes. 1985. Evaluation of chemotherapy with benznidazole and nifurtimox in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi strains of different types. J. Bulletin of World Health Organization 63 (4): 721-726.
5. Van Zutphen, L.F.M. 2001. History of animal use. Pages 2-5 in Principles of laboratory animal science. L.F.M. Van Zutphen, V. Baumans and A.C. Beynen, eds. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
6. Patronek, G., and A. Rauch. 2007. Systematic review of comparative studies examining alternatives to the harmful use of animals in biomedical education. JAVMA 230, (1), 37-43.
7. Baldrick, P. 2010. Juvenile animal testing in drug development-Is it useful? Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 57: 291-299.
8. Herman, Eric. 2003. PETA video depicts Columbia ‘atrocities.’ NY Daily News. (E-Suppl.) http://www.nydailynews.com/archives/news/2003/10/21/2003-10-21_peta_video_depicts_columbia_.html. Accessed Nov. 21, 2010.
9. Jones, G. 2009. Revealed- experiments kill one animal every hour---tortured to death. The Daily Telegraph (Australia). 4:1.
10. Rowlinson, J. 2010. Where does animal testing occur? AboutAnimalTesting. http://www.aboutanimaltesting.co.uk/where-does-animal-testing-occur.html. Accessed Nov. 28, 2010.
11. Festing, S., and R. Wilkinson. 2007. The ethics of animal research. EMBO Reports 8 (6), 526-530.
12. IACUC. About Us. http://iacuc.org/aboutus.htm. Accessed Nov. 17, 2010.
13. Fiester, A. 2008. Justifying a presumption of restraint in animal biotechnology research. American Journal of Bioethics. 6: 36-44.
14. OLAW. 2002. Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/phspol.htm#AnimalWelfareAssurance. Accessed Nov. 17, 2010.
15. Nicoll, C.S. and Russell, S.M. 1989. Freedom to conduct research. Nature. 342,220.
16. Rollin, B.E. 2006. The regulation of animal research and the emergence of animal ethics: a conceptual history. Theor Med Bioeth. 27(4):285-304.