Communication

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Communication : 

Michael A. Hitt C. Chet Miller Adrienne Colella Chapter 9 Communication

Knowledge Objectives : 

Knowledge Objectives Explain why communication is strategically important to organizations. Describe the communication process. Discuss important aspects of communication within organizations, including networks and the direction of communication flow.

Knowledge Objectives : 

Knowledge Objectives Define interpersonal communication and discuss the roles of formal versus informal communication, communication media, communication technology, and nonverbal communication in the interpersonal communication process. Describe organizational and individual barriers to effective communication. Understand how organizations and individuals can overcome communication barriers.

Communication Process : 

Communication Process Communication Sharing information Two or more people Common understanding Object Situation Communication medium Encoding Decoding Feedback

Communication Process : 

Communication Process Sent Message Communication Medium Feedback (e.g., verbal, face-to-face, or e-mail) Adapted from Exhibit 9-1: Sent Message

Communication Within Organizations : 

Communication Within Organizations Organizational communication Patterns of communication at the organizational level Purpose is to facilitate achievement of organizational goals Involves the use of Communication networks Policies Structures

Communication Networks : 

Communication Networks Adapted from Exhibit 9-2: Communication Networks

Direction of Organizational Communication : 

Direction of Organizational Communication Downward From supervisor to subordinate Job instructions Information on organization policies Performance feedback Inform associates about the organization’s goals and changes

Direction of Organizational Communication : 

Direction of Organizational Communication Upward From subordinate to supervisor Grievance procedures Departmental meetings Participation in decisions And others Upward communication may be necessary to Monitor the effectiveness of decisions Provide information Maintain associate morale Ensure that jobs are being done properly

Direction of Organizational Communication : 

Direction of Organizational Communication Horizontal Between associates at the same level Facilitates coordination among organizational units May arise from integrating positions (boundary-spanning positions) 360-degree performance feedback

Interpersonal Communication : 

Interpersonal Communication Direct verbal or nonverbal interaction between two or more active participants Formal vs. informal issues Informal includes spontaneous interactions Informal may reach more associates Informal can help build cohesion and friendship among associates Informal may include untrue rumors and gossip

Communication Media : 

Communication Media Effective managers use richer media when Message becomes more equivocal Message is more important They need to present a positive self-image Face-to-face Formal numerical text Formal written text Personal written text Electronic messaging Telephone Do you know which media are richer?

Nonverbal Communication : 

Nonverbal Communication Communication that takes place without using language, such as facial expressions or body language Body language (kinesics) Facial expressions Use of hands, arms, legs and posture Paralanguage (How something is said) Tone and pitch of voice Use of silence Gestures Hand signals Shrugging one’s shoulders

Nonverbal Communication : 

Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication provides information about the Person’s attitudes Emotional state Mental state Nonverbal behavior may support or conflict with a person’s verbal communication

Communication Barriers : 

Communication Barriers Information overload Noise Time pressures Network breakdowns Information distortion Cross-cultural barriers Differing perceptions Semantic differences Status differences Consideration of self-interest Personal space Poor listening skills

Communication Barriers : 

Communication Barriers Eye contact Direct In many Asian Countries, extended eye contact is unacceptable. Time orientation Punctual—”Time is Money” Asian and Latin American cultures have longer time horizons; resolving issues is more important than being on time. Answering questions Direct and factual Many Asian cultures view being direct as rude and aggressive. Self-presentation Self-promotion rewarded Many other cultures (e.g., Asian, Russian) find this rude. Adapted from Exhibit 9-3: Cultural Communication Differences Communication In the United States Elsewhere Posture Open body posture In Japan, a closed body posture is (e.g., arms relaxed) preferred (e.g., crossed arms and legs) Indicating “no” Shaking one’s head from In Bulgaria, the “no” signal means “I’m side to side listening,” rather than “I disagree.”

Overcoming Communication Barriers : 

Overcoming Communication Barriers Communication audit Analysis of an organization’s internal and external communication to assess communication practices and capabilities and determine needs Methodology Hold a planning meeting with all major parties to determine a specific approach and gain commitment to it Conduct interviews with top management Collect, inventory, and analyze communication material Conduct associate interviews Prepare and administer a questionnaire to measure attitudes toward communication

Overcoming Communication Barriers : 

Overcoming Communication Barriers Individual actions Know your audience Select an appropriate communication medium Encourage feedback Regulate information flow and timing Listen actively

Overcoming Communication Barriers : 

Overcoming Communication Barriers 1. Stop talking. Often, we talk more than we should without giving the other person a chance to respond. If we are thinking about what we will say when we talk, we cannot focus attention on the person we wish to listen to. Do not interrupt. 2. Pay attention. Do not allow yourself to be distracted by thinking about something else. Often, we need to make an active effort to pay attention when others are speaking. 3. Listen empathetically. Try to take the speaker’s perspective. Mirror the speaker’s body language and give him or her nonjudgmental encouragement to speak. 4. Hear before evaluating. Do not draw premature conclusions or look for points of disagreement. Listen to what the person has to say before jumping to conclusions or judgment. Adapted from Exhibit 9-4: How to Be an Active Listener

Overcoming Communication Barriers : 

Overcoming Communication Barriers 5. Listen to the whole message. Look for consistency between the verbal and the nonverbal messages. Try to assess the person’s feelings or intentions, as well as just facts. 6. Send feedback. In order to make sure that you have heard correctly, paraphrase what was heard and repeat it to the person you were listening to. Adapted from Exhibit 9-4: How to Be an Active Listener

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