Introduction : Introduction Rice is the staple food of more than 60% of the world’s population.
It is the staple food of most of the people of South-Eastern Asia.
About 90% of all rice grown in the world is produced and consumed in the Asian region. Nutritional values : Nutritional values Nutritional value per 100 g
Energy : 1,527 kJ (365 kcal)
Sugars : 0.12 g
Protein : 7.12 g
Dietary fiber : 1.3 g
Thiamine : 0.0701 mg
Riboflavin : 0.0149 mg (1%)
Zinc : 1.09 mg
Calcium : 28 mg
Iron : 0.80 mg
Magnesium : 25 mg
Source: USDA Nutrient database Origin and History : Origin and History Rice cultivation probably dates back to the antiquity and has probably been the staple food and the first cultivated crop in Asia.
Vavilov (1926) suggested that India and Burma should be regarded as the centre of origin of cultivated rice. Area and Distribution : Area and Distribution The rice grown countries are China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Egypt etc.
Among the rice growing countries India has the largest area (44.8 million hectares) followed by China and Indonesia.
In India production of rice in 2009-10 stands at 89.13 million tones.
In India rice is grown in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, U.P, Punjab, Haryana and M.P.
The highest production of rice in West Bengal.
Source: http://dacnet.nic.in Classification : Classification Common Name: - Rice
Scientific Name: - Oryza sativa
Family: - Gramineae
Indica:-It is tropical rice grown in India, awnless or short awn ,late in maturity ,long stem.
Japonica:-Temperate and sub tropical rice, grown in Japan, early maturity, photosynthetically very active ,short stem.
Javanica:- wild form of rice, grown in Indonesia Climatic requirements : Climatic requirements Rice crop needs a hot and humid climate the average temperature required throught the life period of the crop ranges from 21-37oC.
At the time of tillering the crop requires a higher temperature than for growth.
Temperature requirement for blooming is in the range of 26.5-29.5oC.
At the time of ripening the temperature should be between 22-250c. Season : Season Soil : Soil Soil having good water retentions capacity with good amount of clay and organic matter are ideal for rice cultivation.
Clay or clay loams are most suited for rice cultivation it grows well in soils having a pH between 5.5-6.5. Varieties : Varieties Slide 12: Saline alkaline – CSR10,CSR13,CSR27
Scented- Pusa 33,Haryana Basmati.
Hybrids – APHR-1, APHR-2, CNRH-3, KRH-2, PHV-71. Cropping System : Cropping System (A) Irrigated Areas
(B) Un-irrigated Area
3. Rice-Field Pea Cultivation : Cultivation The following are the principal systems of rice cultivation;-
1. Dry or semi-dry upland cultivation
(a) Broadcasting the seed
(b) Sowing the seed behind the plough or drill
2. Wet or lowland cultivation
(a) Transplanting in puddle soils
(b) Broadcasting sprouted seeds in puddle soils DRY OR SEMI- RAINFED UPLAND CULTIVATION (Direct Seeding) : DRY OR SEMI- RAINFED UPLAND CULTIVATION (Direct Seeding) A vast tract of rice in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, parts of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh is under rainfed upland situation.
Selection of Varieties
Short duration varieties of 100-105 days duration should be selected.
After harvesting the Rabi crops in April-May, the fields should be ploughed with soil turning plough. Seed rate : Seed rate Broadcasting-
Use about 100 kg seed/ha.
Sowing seed behind the plough or drilling.
Use about 60kg seed/ha. The row to row distance should be 20cm. Fertilizer Application : Fertilizer Application Nitrogen – 60 kg/ha.
Potash - 30 kg/ha.
Total quantity of phosphorus and potash and 25% of the total nitrogen should be applied in the soil at the time of land preparation.
After 35-40 days of sowing or at tillering stage, top dress 50 % of the total nitrogen.
The remaining 25% nitrogen should be top dressed at panicle initiation stage. Wet or lowland cultivation : Wet or lowland cultivation This system of rice culture is practiced where there is an assured and adequate supply of water.
Raising Seedling in Nursery- For transplanting one hectare area about 500 square meter area is sufficient for nursery raising.
In case of late sowing area of nursery should be increased to 750-1000square meter.
In case of bold grain varieties, about 40-45 kg seed would be required to raise seedling enough for one hectare, whereas for fine grain varieties 30-35 kg seed is enough. Methods of Raising Seedlings : Methods of Raising Seedlings Wet Bed Method - Wet nurseries are preferred under irrigated condition.
Dry Bed Method – This method is practised in areas where water is not sufficient to grow seedlings in wet nurseries.
Dapog Method – The main merit of this method is that less area is needed to raise seedlings 25-30 square metres of area is enough to raise seedling sufficient for planting one hectare. Transplanting : Transplanting Transplanting of healthy seedlings may be done at the 4-5 leaf stage or when they are about 15-20 cm high.
Transplant 2-3 seedlings per hill at 20X10 cm distance under normal conditions.
Broadcasting Sprouted Seeds In Puddle Soils:- This method is adopted in areas where there is shortage of laboures or otherwise labour is very expensive for transplanting. About 100 Kg. seed is required for one hectare. Fertilizer Application : Fertilizer Application Nitrogen – 60 kg/ha.
Potash - 30 kg/ha.
Total quantity of phosphorus and potash and half of the total nitrogen should be applied before last puddling.
Top dress 25 % of the total nitrogen at 25-30 days after transplanting or at tillering stage. Slide 22: The remaining 25% nitrogen should be top dressed at panicle initiation stage.
Fertilizers containing nitrate are more susceptible to loss of nitrogen through leaching and denitrification.
In paddy fields apply ammonium sulphate, ammonium chloride, urea and DAP.
In zinc deficient soils 20-25Kg./ha should be applied at the time of last puddling. Water Management : Water Management The water requirement is high during the initial seedling period covering about 10 days.
Tillering to flowering is the most critical stage when rice crop should not be subjected to any moisture stress.
Ensure enough water from panicle initiation stage to flowering. Weed Control : Weed Control The most commonly found weeds in transplanted rice are given below:-
Weeds should be removed once at 20 days after transplanting ( before first top dressing) and second time at 50-60 days after transplanting ( before second top dressing ). Diseases : Diseases Blast
Casual organism:- Pyricularia oryzae
Symptoms:- Boat or eye- shaped spots with grey or dark brown margin appear on the leaf and leaf sheath.
Treat the seed at the rate of 10kg seed with 5gm Emisan.
Grow resistant varieties Haryana Basmati – 1, CSR-30, HKR-46, HKR-120 Slide 27: Bacterial Leaf Blight
Symptoms:- The ‘Kresek’
occurs in early stage of plant growth in which the plant withers and dries up. In the later stage , the blighting starts from the tip of the leaves from one or both the margins or in the centre and proceeds downwards.
Use certified seed from a reliable source or treat the seed 1gm Streptocyclin.
Grow resistant varieties HKR-120, IR-64. Slide 28: Sheath Blight : -
Casual organism: - Corticium sasakii
Symptoms: - The symptoms of diseases appear on leaf and leaf sheath as 2-3 cm long greenish –grey lesions, turning to straw colour and surrounded by bluish grey narrow bands.
Don’t use heavy dose of nitrogen.
Spray the crop with 1kg Carbendazim per hectare in 1000 litres of water. Insect – pest and management : Insect – pest and management Stem Borer: - Damage caused by
the larva of this insect results in
‘Dead heart’ and ‘White head’.
‘Dead heart’ is created in early
life of the plant before flowering and ‘White head’ occurs at flowering resulting in drying of the entire panicle.
Apply 3% carbofuran granules at the rate of 30-33kg/ha.
Grow resistant variety HKR-46. Slide 30: Leaf Roller
Caterpillars of this pest cause
damage by folding the leaf
blades into tubular structure
and feeding on the green leaf
tissues with in this structures.
Apply Parathion 2% dust at the rate of 20kg/ha.
Other insect-pest is Gundhi Bug, Rice Hispa, Brown Plant Hopper etc Harvesting and threshing : Harvesting and threshing The right stage for harvesting is when about 80% panicles have about 80% ripened spikelets.
The grain will contain about 20% moisture.
The most common method of threshing are trampling by bullocks, rubbing with bare human feed ( in hills) or lifting the bundles and striking them on the raised wooden platform. Yield : Yield A well manage crop of mid-late duration (135-150 days) paddy, yields about 60-70 quintals paddy per hectare.
Short duration varieties yield about 45-55 quintals of paddy per hectare.
Hybrid rice yields, about 60-70 quintals of paddy per hectare Major problems in rice cultivation : Major problems in rice cultivation About 78% of the farmers are small and marginal in the country and they are poor in resource.
The problems of flash floods, water logging/ submergence due to poor drainage are very common in East India.
Continuous use of traditional varieties due to the non-availability of seeds and farmers lack of awareness about high yielding varieties.
Low soil fertility due to soil erosion resulting in loss of plant nutrients and moisture. Slide 34: Low and imbalanced use of fertilizers, low use efficiency of applied fertilizers particularly in the North-Eastern and Eastern States.
The Eastern region experiences high rainfall and severe flood almost every year which lead to heavy loss.
Heavy infestation of weeds and insects/pests.
Delay in monsoon onset often results in delayed and prolong transplanting and sub-optimum plant population (Mostly in rainfed lowlands).
In the years of scanty or adverse distribution of rainfall, the crop fails owing to drought etc Strategies may be adopted to increase the productivity of Rice : Strategies may be adopted to increase the productivity of Rice Emphasis may be given on a cropping system approach rather than a single crop development approach..
Propagation of location specific crop production technologies in different agro-climatic zones.
Improving soil fertility Slide 36: Replacement of low potential/pest susceptible old varieties by new high yielding varieties with promising yield potential.
To encourage cultivation of hybrid rice through demonstrations and making seed available to the farmers.
Motivating the farmers to provide life saving irrigation to the crop wherever possible during long dry spells.