Ontario Pioneers (eBook)

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Ontario’s Pioneers : 

Ontario’s Pioneers

Terms : 

Terms Review the Terms Border:a dividing line between two countries, two provinces, or other areas of land. Colony: a settlement that is ruled by another country. Britain had many in North America. Rebel: means to fight against or to refuse to obey someone who is in charge Consequence: a result of something that happens Revolution: when people rebel against their government and try to get rid of it. Usually violent and many people are hurt or die.

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Independent: a country that governs itself; is not ruled by another country Traitor: a person who betrays his or her country or ruler Refugee: a person who leaves his or her country because of persecution or war, and seeks safety in another country Pioneer: a person who helps create a new settlement

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Take the Quiz!

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The American Colonies Coming to Canada Canada’s First Refugees The Loyalist Iroquois Creating a New Home The Aboriginal People & Early Settlers Upper Canada What would you like to learn about?

The American Colonies : 

The American Colonies By 1775, about three million people lived in the American colonies. These colonies were ruled by Britain. By this time, Canada was also a British colony. Many American colonists were unhappy with British decisions to tax goods like sugar, tea, and paper. Since they had no say about these decisions, they thought the taxes were unfair. The people in these colonies decided they no longer wanted to be ruled by Britain. They did not want decisions made for them by a country on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean.

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There were consequences for this rebellion. Britain did not want to lose the American colonies. There was a long war, called the American Revolution, and many people died. In the end, the colonies won and became an independent country – the United States of American. But some people living in American colonies remained loyal to Britain. They called themselves Loyalists, and were proud to be British.

Loyalists : 

Loyalists The Loyalists were not popular in the American colonies. They were often called traitors. Even before the war began, some of them lost their homes. Some were put in prison and some were killed. When the war started, many Loyalists fought on the British side. The Loyalists believed that the problems between Britain and the American colonies could be solved peacefully. Some of them were worried about what life might be like in an independent country. By the time the war was over, many Loyalists had left the United States to come to Canada. Since they had been loyal to Britain, they were promised land.

Coming to Canada : 

Coming to Canada The Loyalists walked, they rode in wagons, they came by ships. There were soldiers, farmers, merchants, and skilled workers like blacksmiths and shipbuilders. There were several thousand Aboriginal people who had fought with the British. There were many women and children. A large group of Loyalists went to the colony of Nova Scotia. A smaller group settled on land that is now part of southern Ontario. The British governor bought the land from groups of Ojibwa people living in the area.

Canada’s First Refugees : 

Canada’s First Refugees Many people choose to move to another country, but some people have no choice because of war, persecution, or natural disaster, they are forced to leave their homeland and find a safe place to live. These people are called refugees. The Loyalists who came to Canada so many years ago did not want to leave their homes. However, they were no longer welcome or safe in the American colonies, they were Canada’s first refugees.

The Loyalist Iroquois : 

The Loyalist Iroquois One of the chiefs, Joseph Brant, urged the Iroquois people in the American colony of New York to join the British. Many Iroquois did fight on the British side. When the war was over, Britain gave their land to the Americans as part of the peace treaty. The Iroquois were very unhappy with this decision. The land did not belong to Britain and was not theirs to give away. The British governor in Canada was concerned about the Iroquois. They had been loyal to Britain, and now they had no home. He offered them land near the Grand River valley, west of Lake Ontario. Many of the Loyalist Iroquois moved there. This area is still home to a large number of Aboriginal people.

Creating a New Home : 

Creating a New Home In the summer of 1784, many groups of Loyalists took a long trip up the St. Lawrence River to reach their new homes. The land near Kingston was one of the first areas that was settled. Have you ever walked through a thick forest? There are so many trees you can hardly see the sun. That is what the Loyalist settlers saw when they went to look at their new land. Some of them were probably discouraged about how much work they would have to do. They had been given tools and supplies to get started – axes, spades, hoes, guns for hunting, seeds for planting, a tent for each family, and food supplies. The first job was to build a small log cabin for shelter during the winter. Then they began to clear the land so it could be planted in the spring.

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As the years went by, the land was transformed. Where forests had been, there were farms with houses and barns. The small log cabin in which many pioneer families spent their first winters was now used for animals or storage. The loyalist settlers in Ontario lived through some very hard times together. One year, when the crops failed and people were starving, they shared what little food they had with each other. They worked together, laughed together, and prayed together. They were grateful for everything they have been given – the land on which they grew food, good neighbours who helped each other, and families to shared work and love. They prayed that God would continue to bless them.

The Aboriginal People & Early Settlers : 

The Aboriginal People & Early Settlers People moving to another country have a lot to learn. They early settlers in North America were no different. They came to a new land covered with forests, lakes, and rivers. They wanted to know about the climate, and how to travel, grow food, and make things they needed. The Aboriginal people had answers to many of their questions. Here are some of the skills early settlers learned from them. Hollowed Out Stump A Burl Travel Roots and Plants Maple Syrup The early settlers in North America were grateful for the help they received from the Aboriginal people

Hollowed Out Stump : 

Hollowed Out Stump A stump that was hollowed out by burning could be used for many tasks. Corn could be grounded in it with a long wooden pestle. It could also be used as a water bucket or barrel.

A Burl : 

A Burl A bulge on the side of a maple tree, called a burl, could be hollowed out and then polished to make a wooden bowl.

Travel : 

Travel Travel by water was often the easiest way to get from one place to another. Birchbark canoes, which are light and agile, were a good method of transportation.

Roots and Plants : 

Roots and Plants Early settlers learned about roots and plants that could be used for food and medicine.

Maple Syrup : 

Maple Syrup Canada is famous for maple syrup. It was the Aboriginal people who showed the early settlers how to collect and boil the sap from maple trees to make sugar.

Upper Canada : 

Upper Canada John Graves Simcoe was the first governor of Upper Canada. He encouraged more people from the United States to come and live in Upper Canada. Some came because they wanted to live in a British colony. Others came because land did not cost very much. By 1806, the population grew, there were about 70 000 people living in Upper Canada. Most of them had been born in the American colonies, now the United States.

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Before long, thousands of people from England, Scotland, and Ireland began to come to North America. They were looking for land to farm and for work to support their families. Their long trip across the Atlantic Ocean took many weeks. The ships were often crowed and dirty, and many travellers got very sick. Some people did not live to see their new land. In Upper Canada, they joined the Loyalist settlers and became part of the story of Ontario.

References : 

References The information and pictures used in this eBook were from the Many Gifts: Social Studies for Catholic Schools text book or from PowerPoint clip art. PegisSantin, Sylvia & Gallagher, Patrick. (2000). Many Gifts: Social Studies for Catholic Schools. Toronto, Gage Learning Corporation. Pages 21-35.

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