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What supports my position? : 

What supports my position? Most are recessive Only homozygous individuals express Some are dominant, but do not always express In ITD, roughly 30% of carriers express it. Most are single-gene alterations. Implies higher frequency of alleles due to less genetic variation… and this means: Most likely due to Founder’s effect Small initial gene pool means alleles are recycled more frequently than in the population that the Founder’s left.

Slide 2: 

Social status influenced reproduction rates Poor women reproduced less They had higher infant mortality rates because they weren’t privileged to see the doctors that rich women could, and generally had less kids. More affluent women reproduced more More offspring from less females means there is a higher chance of recessive traits being introduced, because a smaller portion of the population is reproducing in higher amounts meaning genetic variation is very limited for the size of the population.

How can I argue this? : 

How can I argue this? The founder’s effect plays an important role in the sense that when a group of individuals who are separated from their native group (where they inherited their genes) start reproducing, there is no new genetic variation introduced. The pool is smaller, and some diseases which are carried recessively may become more prominent. Jews were constantly oppressed and killed which means their populations were diminished and frequently separated. This results in less genetic variation for future generations, who have very little chance to introduce new genes into the pool because Jews are; for the most part, endogamous.

Slide 4: 

After so many generations, certain alleles may become more frequent than others; and, when paired together, as they must be in order for recessive genes to be expressed, then we start to see instances of "ethnic-related" disease, but the real disease is when one culture attempts to annihilate and exterminate another culture, thus forcing them to flee or die.

What supports my opposition? : 

What supports my opposition? Tay-sachs is common in Eastern Euro Jews But a lot of cultures have ethnic-related diseases; in fact, as you travel the world you see how some people are more inclined than others to disease and where… in Africa, Sickle Cell is more highly expressed. In French-Canadians, Tay-Sachs is. In caucasians, cystic fibrosis is. In the Turkish, PKU is. Disease that affects nervous system/brain are just the same. Have the highest rate of genetic diseases Also one of the most persecuted people in the world, the Christians, Muslims, Arabs, the French, German, Russian, Italy, and many others. Most are recessive and affect one point on the gene.

Slide 6: 

Natural selection would balance it out Most carriers don’t even express it, only their homozygous children do. Thus, if two heterozygotes reproduce, only 25% of their children will express symptoms – meaning, a large majority of their offspring may still carry it, but it will not be expressed. TB was a major cause of death in the 20th century, and TB is also resisted when Tay-Sachs is present, which means there was a slight advantage. Constant disruption of gene pool and separation of populations results in different genes. Most Askhenazi lineage can be traced to 4 females and an unknown amount of males (but estimated to be under 5) Genetic sequencing suggests Ashkenazi are more closely related to Middle-Eastern people than to European people. As one culture migrates towards others, cultural diseases may spread and affect genes as well.

Slide 7: 

Bottom line: The Ashkenazi do not have an abnormally higher rate of genetic disease relative to other cultures, they just have a higher rate of expression, which can be for multiple reasons. None are proven though because there is so much to test, for example: Ashkenazi Jews are known to be intelligent; so maybe the heterozygous advantage to having some genetic diseases, is increased brain function.

Works [Improperly] Cited… I’m too lazy sorry!  : 

Works [Improperly] Cited… I’m too lazy sorry!  Hammer et al. (May 9 2000). "Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97 (12): 6769. doi:10.1073/pnas.100115997. PMID 10801975 Behar et al. (March 2006). "The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event" (PDF). The American Journal of Human Genetics 78 (3): 487–97. doi:10.1086/500307. PMID 16404693. PMC 1380291.

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