CULTURE AND CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT SOCIETIES : CULTURE AND CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT SOCIETIES POLITICS : POLITICS Lakan/Hari - chief datu or head of an alliance of barangays
Karadyaan – example of an alliance of barangays, which was headed by Raha Matanda (political leader) and the Raha Muda (younger raha) as the chief of the army Slide 3: Karadyaan of Manila (16th century) – led by Raha Matanda and Raha Sulayman RELIGION : RELIGION Animism – religion of the early Filipinos
Belief that gods and goddesses inhabit nature
Anitoism – another term for animism
It also means the worship of gods and goddesses believed to be present in nature or the environment Local names for their gods: : Local names for their gods: Bathala – chief god of the Tagalogs
Laon – chief god for the Visayans
Kabunian – chief god for the Ibalois
anitos – were believed to be the spirits living in nature ECONOMY : ECONOMY Economic activities of the Early Filipinos:
Pottery Slide 7: 7. Forging metals into weapons and tools
Barter trading – the exchange of products with the products of other communities
External trading also took place between the Filipinos and the Chinese Slide 8: Some of the artifacts that can prove this theory:
Ceramics AGRICULTURE : AGRICULTURE Kaingin system – an activity that entails the burning of one part of the forest in order to clear the area to be used for planting
Ashes from the burnt plants were used as fertilizers
Irrigation system – another activity used in farming Irrigation System : Irrigation System According to Veneracion, this system entails the transfer of water from the river to the farmland in order to soften the land by plowing and stomping with human as well as animal feet before these were planned with palay SYSTEM OF WRITING : SYSTEM OF WRITING Our ancestors already have developed their ancient system of writing prior to the coming of the Spaniards.
Baybayin - the ancient system of writing of our forefathers
It is composed of 14 consonants and three vowels and the rule was “write it as you pronounce it”. Artifacts which proved that early Filipinos knew how to write: : Artifacts which proved that early Filipinos knew how to write: Calatagan pot – a clay pot with a writing similar to the baybayin script
Butuan paleograph – a piece of metal resembling the baybayin
Laguna Copperplate Inscription – a proof of debt-payment. TRANSCRIPTION : TRANSCRIPTION LA-BAG MAN NA LA-NGA-KIN Group 2 NI-NO MAN NI I-MA NGA Group 3 GA KA-KA-I-LA-NGA-NIN Group 4 BA I-YAN NGA KI-NA-NO Group 5 NGA KA-LA-BIS NG GAN-YANG Group 6 PA- * -KI-NA-BANG Group 1 Slide 19: Ang Tunay na Diwa ng Alay
Labag man nga lang (sa) aki't (kalooban) Kanino man, kay ina'y magalay, gaano man ang kanyang kakailanganin, (sa kabila) Aba! kanino man nga iyan galing, labis ang ganyang ating pakikinabangin (sa wakas) (na pagpapala ni Bathala). BUTUAN PALEOGRAPH : BUTUAN PALEOGRAPH Slide 22: 1 Ce "His , Her, This“
2 Ual "eight (8)"
3 Tre "2"
4 Oy "1" Slide 23: 5 Pong "Apong" means "year"
6 De "De Ra" means
7 Ra "When he left"
8 Les "Les Ece" same as
9 Ece "Liyuxie" the ambassador of Butuan Kingdom to China in 1011 A.D. Slide 24: 10 Ciuo "Ciou Cod Col Ning"
11 Cod means
12 Col "I accompanied the trip"
14 Gue "Gue Apong" means Slide 25: 15 Pong "Return the next year"
16 The period punctuation mark
17 Co "I or me"
18 Gre "Co Greyalo" means "I was in good condition or I am well Laguna Copperplate Inscription : Laguna Copperplate Inscription Slide 27: Long Live! Year of Saka 822, month of Waisakha, according to astronomy. The fourth day of the waning moon, Monday. On this occasion, Lady Angkatan, and her brother whose name is Bukah, the children of the Honourable Namwaran, were awarded a document of complete pardon from the Commander in Chief of Tundun, represented by the Lord Minister of Pailah, Jayadewa. Slide 28: By this order, through the scribe, the Honourable Namwaran has been forgiven of all and is released from his debts and arrears of 1 katî and 8 suwarna before the Honourable Lord Minister of Puliran, Ka Sumuran by the authority of the Lord Minister of Pailah. Slide 29: Because of his faithful service as a subject of the Chief, the Honourable and widely renowned Lord Minister of Binwangan recognized all the living relatives of Namwaran who were claimed by the Chief of Dewata, represented by the Chief of Medang. Slide 30: Yes, therefore the living descendants of the Honourable Namwaran are forgiven, indeed, of any and all debts of the Honourable Namwaran to the Chief of Dewata. Slide 31: This, in any case, shall declare to whomever henceforth that on some future day should there be a man who claims that no release from the debt of the Honourable... Residence : Residence Economic considerations during the pre-Spanish society:
Steady supply of food (near the rivers and in coastal areas)
Where trade is accessible Bahay Kubo : Bahay Kubo The typical house of the early Filipinos What are the parts of the Bahay Kubo? : What are the parts of the Bahay Kubo? Silongan
Pundasyon (four posts) BELIEF IN THE AFTERLIFE : BELIEF IN THE AFTERLIFE What are the proofs that ancient Filipinos believed in the afterlife? Answer: : Answer: Artifacts found in the burial sites of our ancestors Slide 37: Early Filipinos believed that the soul of the departed will travel on sea before he reach his final destination.
The Manunggal jar was a reflection of this belief.
The anthropomorphic (human-form) jars found in Maitum Cave in Sarangani Province also reflected this kind of belief. Slide 38: Burial jars served as secondary burials because the bones of the dead were placed here after burying them under the ground.
They were usually placed inside caves facing the rivers.
In Bohol, an ancient datu along with his slaves and valuable possessions were found buried inside a balangay. What is afterlife? : What is afterlife? Believed to be a continuation of life on earth, thus valuables were also buried alongside the dead.
According to Loarca, rich datus were buried with their valuable possessions because of the belief that they would be received with indifference. Slide 40: This kind of belief in the afterlife possibly encouraged people to strive harder so that when they die, they would receive a warm welcome in the afterlife.