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Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years. The process of evolution involves a series of natural changes that cause species (populations of different organisms) to arise, adapt to the environment, and become extinct. All species or organisms have originated through the process of biological evolution. HUMAN EVOLUTION 1. Ardipithecus Ramidus : 1. Ardipithecus Ramidus The most primitive hominid yet found, this species has more chimpanzee-like features than any other human ancestor. Ardipithecus ramidus may have walked upright. Other fossils discovered with Ardipithecus ramidus suggest that the species lived in the forest. They live 4.4 million years ago. First fossils was found in 1992. HUMAN EVOLUTION Slide 4: HUMAN EVOLUTION 2. Australopithecus Anamensis : 2. Australopithecus Anamensis Exhibiting some chimp-like characteristics, Australopithecus anamensis' jaws are more primitive than those of later hominids. And yet, its humerus (an arm bone) is quite human-like. Characteristics of its tibia (a lower leg bone) indicate that Australopithecus anamensis walked on two feet. They live 4.2 - 3.9 million years ago. First fossil was found in 1965. HUMAN EVOLUTION 3. Australopithecus Afarensis : 3. Australopithecus Afarensis This species includes "Lucy," the 3.2 million year old fossil found by Donald Johanson. Australopithecus afarensis' small braincases and relatively large teeth and chewing muscles are similar to those of chimpanzees. However, their teeth, as well as their leg and pelvis bones, exhibit human-like characteristics. They ranged in height from three and a half feet to five feet and walked upright. They live 3.5 - 2.9 million years ago. First fossils was found in 1973. HUMAN EVOLUTION 4. Australopithecus Africanus : 4. Australopithecus Africanus Although similar in many ways to Australopithecus afarensis, this species had a slightly larger brain (but still only slightly larger than a chimp's brain), smaller canine teeth, and larger molars. The wear of the teeth suggests that Australopithecus africanus ate fruits and foliage. They live 3.0 - 2.4 million years ago. First fossils was found in 1924. HUMAN EVOLUTION 5. Australopithecus Robustus : 5. Australopithecus Robustus Believed to be roughly the same size as Australopithecus afarensis. Australopithecus robustus had a large, "robust" (heavier, thicker) skull, as well as a jaw and large teeth that were well adapted to chewing. Like some present-day apes, this species had a "sagittal crest" (a ridge running from front to back on the top of the skull) from which muscles running to the jaw were attached. They live 2.1 - 1.6 million years ago . First fossil was found in 1938. HUMAN EVOLUTION 6. Australopithecus Boisei : 6. Australopithecus Boisei Australopithecus boisei is similar to Australopithecus robustus, except that its skull and teeth are even larger. Some experts consider the two closely related, both branching from another species called Australopithecus aethiopicus. Others believe Australopithecus robustus evolved from Australopithecus africanus. Like all of the other Autralopithecus species, Australopithecus boisei walked upright. They live 2.3 - 1.1 million years ago. First fossil was found in 1959. HUMAN EVOLUTION 7. Homo Habilis : 7. Homo Habilis Homo habilis, which actually means "handy man," is apparently the first species to make and use primitive stone tools. About five feet tall and weighing 100 pounds, Homo habilis had a brain that was larger than the largest Autralopithecus brain, but smaller than the Homo erectus brain. They live 2.4 - 1.5 million years ago. First fossil was found in 1960. HUMAN EVOLUTION 8. Homo Erectus : 8. Homo Erectus The first example of Homo erectus, known as "Java Man," was discovered in Indonesia in 1893. Fossil remains of Homo erectus have since been found throughout Africa and Asia, making it the first wide-ranging hominid. Despite the primitive appearance of its skull, the erectus skeleton is very similar to that of modern humans, although more robust (thicker and heavier). Homo erectus was probably the first hominid to use fire. They live 1.8 million years ago - 300,000 years ago . First fossil was found in 1893. HUMAN EVOLUTION 9. Homo sapiens (archaic) : 9. Homo sapiens (archaic) Also known as Homo heidelbergensis, this species has a brain that was larger than Homo erectus' and smaller than that of a modern human. The brain was enclosed in a skull that was more rounded than Homo erectus'. Fossil remains of archaic Homo sapiens have been found in Africa and Europe. They live 500,000 - 200,000 years ago . First fossil was found in 1921. HUMAN EVOLUTION 10. Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis : 10. Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis Averaging five and a half feet in height and possessing short limbs, Neanderthals were well-adapted to living in a cold climate. Attached to their robust (thick and heavy) bones were powerful muscles. The Neanderthal's brain was larger than the brain of living humans, although its shape was longer from front to back and not as rounded in the front. They live 230,000 - 30,000 years ago. First fossil was found in 1856. HUMAN EVOLUTION 11. Homo Sapiens (modern) : 11. Homo Sapiens (modern) Modern Homo sapiens, also known as Homo sapiens sapiens, have been around for the past 120,000 years. Homo sapiens living about 40,000 years ago made elaborate tools out of bone, antler, ivory, stone, and wood, and produced fine artwork in the form of carvings and cave paintings. They live 120,000 years ago - present . First "Cro-Magnon" specimens was found in 1868. HUMAN EVOLUTION THANK YOU : THANK YOU BY - MAYANK MALIK ARPAN MANGAL PRANAV RAGHAV You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.