Training Needs Assessment:A Systematic Approach : Training Needs Assessment:A Systematic Approach Joan Strohauer
Department of Education Slide 2: “Remember, training is not what is ultimately important… performance is.”
Marc Rosenberg Did you know... : Did you know... “Not more than % of expenditures in training actually result in transfer to the job.”
Broad and Newstrom 6-10 Key Skill : Key Skill Asking questions… ? ? ? Asking the RIGHT questions! In the “Real World” : In the “Real World” You cannot afford to not do a front-end analysis
Something is better than nothing
Do the best you can
Need to have a theoretical base
Key skill: Focus your questions Needs Assessment Definition : Needs Assessment Definition A needs assessment is the process of identifying performance requirements and the "gap" between what performance is required and what presently exists. Macro vs. Micro : Macro vs. Micro Macro
aligned with strategic goals
initiated by performance problems or change
assessment done to clarify problem, determine if training is the solution, analyze performance, and characteristics of trainees Instructional Design Process : Instructional Design Process ANALYZE DESIGN DEVELOP IMPLEMENT EVALUATE Why ISD? : Why ISD? On the job performance Classroom or other type of training or intervention GAP Analyze : Analyze What is the problem?
Is it a training problem?
What skills and knowledge should be included in the training program?
Who needs to be trained? Problem Analysis
Learner Analysis What is Problem and Performance Analysis? : What is Problem and Performance Analysis? Clearly defining the problem or opportunity
A formal procedure used to analyze defined needs to determine their causes and identify appropriate solutions. P. 28 Robert Mager : Robert Mager 1. Define the problem?
2. Determine the importance
Is it worth solving?
3. Determine the cause(s)
4. Identify training vs. non-training
5. Select the best (most cost-effective)
solutions P. 32 Step 1: Define the problem : Step 1: Define the problem DESIRED PERFORMANCE (Optimals)
- ACTUAL PERFORMANCE (Actuals)
= POSSIBLE TRAINING NEED Describe Discrepancy P. 31 Step 2: Is it important? : Step 2: Is it important? Why is it important?
What if you did nothing?
How big is it? (Quantify if possible)
“Is the cost of the discrepancy high enough that it seems worth pursuing a solution?” P. 34 If the answer is no….. : If the answer is no….. IGNORE REJOICE Step 3: Determine Cause(s) : Step 3: Determine Cause(s) Is it a problem of skill
a problem of will? I don’t wanna! I don’t know how. I don’t wanna! Yes, it is a skill deficiency : Yes, it is a skill deficiency Arrange Formal Training Arrange Practice Arrange Feedback Used to do it? Used often? no yes no yes Other questions : Other questions Change the Job Arrange on-the-job training Transfer or terminate Simpler way? Potential? If a skill deficiency.. : If a skill deficiency.. Provide training
Simplify the task
Develop a job aid
Terminate Yes, it is a problem of will... : Yes, it is a problem of will... Remove Punishment Arrange Positive Consequences Arrange consequences Performance punishing? Non-performance rewarded? Does performance matter? P. 37 And one last question... : And one last question... Obstacles? Remove
Obstacles Step 4: To train or not to train? : Step 4: To train or not to train? First determine cause(s)
Only then look at possible solutions
Seek integrated solution systems that get to the root of the problem P. 39 Calculate cost Select best solution(s) Implement To solve a performance issue : To solve a performance issue Training may not be the answer
Training may not be the only answer Cause Solution : Cause Solution If skill or knowledge……….training
If lack feedback……………..feedback, standards
If not motivated…………….rewards, consequences
If unclear expectations…..std, measure, discuss
If job environment…………change environment
If potential……………………change personnel P. 39 If training is the answer…. : If training is the answer…. Formal training
Job related/workplace approaches P. 40 Outcomes of Problem and Performance Analysis : Outcomes of Problem and Performance Analysis More complete picture of problem
Is it training? Is it training plus…
Make solid recommendations
If is training or job aid….on to task or competency analysis! P. 42 Task/Competency Analysis“What do learners need to learn?” : Task/Competency Analysis“What do learners need to learn?” Task Analysis
For more skill oriented jobs
When need consistent set of training requirements Competency Analysis
Soft skills training such as mgmt, supervision
Leadership development Steps in Task Analysis : Steps in Task Analysis Break job into major functions
Break functions into major tasks
Break tasks into steps
Identify training outcomes Task Analysis Interviews : Task Analysis Interviews Managers
Subject matter experts Competency Analysis : Competency Analysis What are competencies?
Enduring characteristics of a person that result in superior on-the-job performance
Areas of personal capability that enable employees to successfully perform their jobs by achieving outcomes or successfully performing tasks What is a competency model? : What is a competency model? Identifies the competencies necessary for each job as well as the knowledge, skills, behavior, and personality characteristics underlying each competency. What do you want to know? : What do you want to know? General characteristics
Specific knowledge and skill
Special needs P. 61 Information is Used in Three Important Ways : Information is Used in Three Important Ways To help determine where to begin the content of the training program
To determine how to present the content
To get buy-in Methods for collecting data : Methods for collecting data Data gathering is cornerstone of any needs assessment project
Can be time consuming Data Collection Methods : Data Collection Methods Interviews
Existing Data Final Exam : Final Exam Why do we bother with needs analysis?
Where does TNA fit in the ISD process?
T or F: Training is the solution to most performance problems.
What are at least 4 methods of collecting data?
What is the key skill one must use in conducting an effective needs analysis? Slide 37: “If you think training is expensive,try ignorance.” Slide 38: Thank You!