RIVER VALLEY PROJECTS -BY SHUBHAM DESHPANDE

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MULTIPURPOSE RIVER VALLLEY PROJECTS & DAMS : 

MULTIPURPOSE RIVER VALLLEY PROJECTS & DAMS BY :SHUBHAM DESHPANDE

WHAT ARE DAMS? : 

WHAT ARE DAMS? Dams are that act as barriers constructed across waterway to control the flow or raise the level of water They are a non polluting source of producing electricity.It also promotes agriculture and fishing.

Multi-Purpose Dams : 

Multi-Purpose Dams Multi-Purpose dams hold water for various seasonal, domestic and irrigation uses. Each is designed to regulate seasonal storage, to control spring and summer flood water and to store water for summer use. Stockwatering, wildlife habitat, and fish rearing are other common uses. The dams are totally drained in the fall to prepare for full flood control potential in the spring.

The figure shows the control valve and the vertical drop pipe. Within the dam the vertical drop inlet pipe connects to the main horizontal drain to serve as an operating spillway. The result is that the water level should only rise to the top of the drop inlet pipe which is 50% of the storage capacity of the dam. When the water level rises above the verical pipe, then the water runs down the pipe. : 

The figure shows the control valve and the vertical drop pipe. Within the dam the vertical drop inlet pipe connects to the main horizontal drain to serve as an operating spillway. The result is that the water level should only rise to the top of the drop inlet pipe which is 50% of the storage capacity of the dam. When the water level rises above the verical pipe, then the water runs down the pipe.

Slide 5: 

Here a picture of a multi-purpose dam. Notice the control gate standing out of the water and the grill on the top of the vertical culvert. The grill is to keep debris and beavers out of the pipe.

Slide 6: 

Here is another view of the multi-purpose dam. The contol and trash rack can easily be seen. Vegetation has not yet been established around this dam .

Slide 7: 

This animation shows the water rising behind a multipurpose dam when the control valve is closed. The water level will stop at the top of the vertical control pipe.

HOW DOES A DAM WORK? : 

HOW DOES A DAM WORK? water gets sucked into a turbine the turbine is connected to a magnet and a generator and the water turns the turbine making electricity. that you use in your house and as I type as well.

NARMADA DAM : 

NARMADA DAM The Narmada Dam Project is a large hydraulic engineering project involving the construction of a series of large irrigation and hydroelectric multi purpose dams on the Narmada River in India. The project was first conceived of in the 1940s by the country's first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. The project only took form in 1979 as part of a development scheme to increase irrigation and produce hydroelectricity. Of the thirty large dams planned on river Narmada, Sardar Sarovar Project (SSP) is the largest structure to be built. It has a proposed final height of 136.5 m (448 ft). The project will irrigate more than 18,000 km2 (6,900 sq mi), most of it in drought prone areas of Kutch and Saurashtra. Critics maintain that its negative environmental impacts outweigh its benefits. It has created discord between its government planners and the citizens group Narmada Bachao Andolan.

Expected benefits of the Sardar Sarovar dam : 

Expected benefits of the Sardar Sarovar dam The expected benefits of the dam as listed in the Judgement of Supreme Court of India in 2000 were: "The argument in favour of the Sardar Sarovar Project is that the benefits are so large that they substantially outweigh the costs of the immediate human and environmental disruption. Without the dam, the long term costs for people would be much greater and lack of an income source for future generations would put increasing pressure on the environment. If the waters of the Narmada river continue to flow to the sea unused there appears to be no alternative to escalating human deprivation, particularly in the dry areas of Gujarat.

Slide 11: 

The project has the potential to feed as many as 20 million people, provide domestic and industrial water for about 30 million, employ about 1 million, and provide valuable peak electric power in an area with high unmet power demand (farm pumps often get only a few hours power per day). In addition, recent research shows substantial economic multiplier effects (investment and employment triggered by development) from irrigation development. Set against the futures of about 70,000 project affected people, even without the multiplier effect, the ratio of beneficiaries to affected persons is well over 100:1."[2]

Slide 12: 

The dam will irrigate 17,920 km2 (6,920 sq mi) of land spread over 12 districts, 62 talukas and 3393 villages (75% of which is drought-prone areas) in Gujarat and 730 km2 (280 sq mi) in the arid areas of Barmer and Jalore districts of Rajasthan. The dam will also provide flood protection to riverine reaches measuring 30,000 ha (74,000 acres) covering 210 villages and Bharuch city and a population of 400,000 in Gujarat.[1]

ADVANTAGES OF DAMS : 

ADVANTAGES OF DAMS 1) reduces or eliminates the seasonal flooding 2) The retained water can be used for human consumption 3) can be used for agricultural irrigation and other uses 4) can be used to generate electricity 5) can be used to improve lake fisheries 6) can improve transportation as part of a canal system

DISADVANTAGES OF DAMS : 

DISADVANTAGES OF DAMS 1) displacement of hundreds, thousands if not millions of people 2) the flooding brought rich soil to the effected areas which will now need to use fertilizers 3) these fertilizers and other pollutants may damage the river ecology and pollute the new lakes 4) may damage or destroy river based fisheries 5) may damage or destroy estuary based fisheries 6) create tensions between neighboring countries

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