unity and coherence

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Unity and Coherence in Academic Writing : 

Unity and Coherence in Academic Writing January 2004 Ms. Wuerth

Coherence? Huh? I don’t get it! : 

Coherence? Huh? I don’t get it! A paragraph is coherent if all its sentences are connected logically so that they are easy to understand. You can create connections in and between sentences and between paragraphs by (a) using transitions and (b) referring to words and ideas that you have mentioned earlier.

Maintain coherence by using transitions : 

Maintain coherence by using transitions Transitions are words, phrases, and even sentences that make a clear connection between one idea and another, between one sentence and another, or between one paragraph and another. For example: Sammy began his career as a lowly A & P employee. He recently was hired as the CEO of a fortune 500 company. These sentences would flow much smoother with a transition that helps connect the two ideas. Sammy began his career as a lowly A & P employee. However, he recently was hired as the CEO of a fortune 500 company.

Transitions can be used to indicate time : 

Transitions can be used to indicate time Sammy worked at the grocery store five days a week. His hard work paid off. add a transitional phrase: Sammy worked at the grocery store five days a week. After a long while all his hard work paid off.

Other transitions that indicate time: : 

Other transitions that indicate time: Afterward in those days After a short while meanwhile All the while since As soon as soon All of a sudden suddenly At that time then By then thereafter During in a few hours In the meantime when Whenever while

Transitions show similarities and differences. : 

Transitions show similarities and differences. Scottsboro Boys: an American Tragedy is like the Tom Robinson trial in many ways. Like the Robinson trial, innocent men are accused of raping a white woman. However these two cases exhibit many differences. Even though innocent men go to jail in both cases, Robinson dies for his crime while the Scottsboro boys, after years of captivity, are released.

Other transitions that show similarities and differences: : 

Other transitions that show similarities and differences: Similarities Differences Similarly although Likewise even though As though As if in contrast As though on the contrary

Transitions are used to add information: : 

Transitions are used to add information: The Scottsboro boys were unfairly tried and convicted of the heinous crime of rape. Moreover, the men spent many years in prison for these crimes they did not commit.

Other transitions used to add information: : 

Other transitions used to add information: And furthermore Also in addition As well moreover Besides too further

Transitions are used to introduce information that contradicts, changes, or qualifies what you have already said. : 

Transitions are used to introduce information that contradicts, changes, or qualifies what you have already said. Attorney Leibowitz promised to get the convictions overturned. However, he could not keep this promise.

Other transitions that are used to contradict, change, or qualify information: : 

Other transitions that are used to contradict, change, or qualify information: Although though Even so then again Even though while In contrast yet Nevertheless Otherwise still

You may also use transitions to introduce examples, to repeat information, or to emphasize a point. : 

You may also use transitions to introduce examples, to repeat information, or to emphasize a point. Atticus took drastic measures in order to ensure the protection of Tom Robinson. For example, he even waited outside Robinson’s jail cell, in the middle of the night, because he knew the townspeople might cause mischief.

Other transitions that introduce examples, repeat information, or emphasize a point: : 

Other transitions that introduce examples, repeat information, or emphasize a point: Introduce Repeat Emphasize as an example as a matter of fact For instance again indeed Specifically once again more important Such as once more to be sure

Transitions show cause and effect. : 

Transitions show cause and effect. As a result of the ignorance of post-Civil War Alabama, the Scottsboro boys spent twelve years behind bars for crimes they did not commit.

Other transitions that show cause/effect: : 

Other transitions that show cause/effect: As a result so that Because then Hence therefore Since thus

Slide 16: 

Coherence is needed in order for readers to understand the material that you are presenting to them. Transitions help maintain coherence by fostering connections between your words, sentences, and paragraphs.

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