gas turbines

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Gas Turbine Theory and Construction : 

Gas Turbine Theory and Construction

Introduction : 

Introduction Comprehend the thermodynamic processes occurring in a gas turbine Comprehend the basic components of gas turbine engines and their basic operation Comprehend the support systems associated with gas turbine engines

Background : 

Background Aircraft turbojet/turbofan engines are precursors to gas turbines Installed for propulsion in: FFG’s DD’s DDG’s CG’s M-1 tanks Also used for electrical generation & auxiliary applications

Brayton Cycle : 

Brayton Cycle Unlike diesels, operate on STEADY-FLOW cycle Open cycle, unheated engine 1-2: Compression 2-3: Combustion 3-4: Expansion through Turbine and Exhaust Nozzle (4-1: Atmospheric Pressure)

Basic Components : 

Basic Components

Basic Components : 

Basic Components

Basic Components : 

Basic Components Compressor Draws in air & compresses it Combustion Chamber Fuel pumped in and ignited to burn with compressed air Turbine Hot gases converted to work Can drive compressor & external load

Basic Components : 

Basic Components Compressor Draws in air & compresses it Combustion Chamber Fuel pumped in and ignited to burn with compressed air Turbine Hot gases converted to work Can drive compressor & external load

Basic Components : 

Basic Components Compressor Draws in air & compresses it Combustion Chamber Fuel pumped in and ignited to burn with compressed air Turbine Hot gases converted to work Can drive compressor & external load

Compressor : 

Compressor Supplies high pressure air for combustion process Compressor types Radial/centrifugal flow compressor Axial flow compressor

Compressor : 

Compressor Radial/centrifugal flow Adv: simple design, good for low compression ratios (5:1) Disadv: Difficult to stage, less efficient Axial flow Good for high compression ratios (20:1) Most commonly used

Compressor : 

Compressor Controlling Load on Compressor To ensure maximum efficiency and allow for flexibility, compressor can be split into HP & LP sections Vane control: inlet vanes/nozzle angles can be varied to control air flow Compressor Stall Interruption of air flow due to turbulence

Use of Compressed Air : 

Use of Compressed Air Primary Air (30%) Passes directly to combustor for combustion process Secondary Air (65%) Passes through holes in perforated inner shell & mixes with combustion gases Film Cooling Air (5%) Insulates/cools turbine blades

Blade Cooling : 

Blade Cooling

Combustion Chambers : 

Combustion Chambers Where air & fuel are mixed, ignited, and burned Spark plugs used to ignite fuel Types Can: for small, centrifugal compressors Annular: for larger, axial compressors (LM 2500) Can-annular: rarely used

Turbines : 

Turbines Consists of one or more stages designed to develop rotational energy Uses sets of nozzles & blades Single shaft Power coupling on same shaft as turbine Same shaft drives rotor of compressor and power components

Turbines : 

Turbines Split Shaft Gas generator turbine drives compressor Power turbine separate from gas generator turbine Power turbine driven by exhaust from gas generator turbine Power turbine drives power coupling

Dual Shaft, Split Shaft : 

Dual Shaft, Split Shaft

Gas Turbine Systems : 

Gas Turbine Systems Air System Air intakes are located high up & multiple filters Exhaust discharged out stacks Fuel System Uses either DFM or JP-5 Lubrication System Supply bearings and gears with oil

Gas Turbine Accessory Systems : 

Gas Turbine Accessory Systems Starting System To get compressor initially rotated, HP air used (can use electrical also) Once at certain RPM, fuel injected and spark ignited Power Transmission System Reduction gears used to transfer torque With split shaft, turbines can run @ different speeds

GTG vs Steam : 

GTG vs Steam For the same hP, Weight reduction of 70% Simpler (less maintenance, fewer components) Reduced manning – automated control Quicker response time Modular replacement

Engine Power Transfer : 

Engine Power Transfer Turbojet Thrust provided by reaction against expansion of exhaust gases Turbofan Thrust provided by reaction against expansion of large volumes of air Marine systems Thrust provided by turbine SCRAMjet/RAMjet

What’s Important : 

What’s Important Block Diagram of Split-Shaft GTG system Types of Compression and characteristics Major difference between aviation and marine GTs

Questions? : 

Questions?

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