Educational Methods : Educational Methods The bag of tricks Direct Instruction/Lecture : Direct Instruction/Lecture Advantages
Many objectives can be mastered in a short amount of time
Lends to valid evaluations Direct Instruction/Lecture : Direct Instruction/Lecture Disadvantages
Student involvement is limited to the teacher
Depends in part to rote learning (repetition from memory, often without meaning) Direct Instruction/Lecture : Direct Instruction/Lecture When to use?
When the objectives indicate effectiveness
When the teacher determines that it is the best use of time & effort Six steps in Direct Instruction : Six steps in Direct Instruction Review previously learned material
State objectives for the lesson
Present new material
Guide practice with corrective feedback
Assign independent practice with corrective feedback
Review periodically with corrective feedback if necessary 1. Review previously learned material : 1. Review previously learned material A short review before/with the new lesson’s interest approach
Check & grade previous homework
Put problems on the board (can be part of bell-work)
Re-teach if necessary 2. State objectives for the lesson : 2. State objectives for the lesson Students should know what is to be taught
Written on the board
Follow the objectives
Use them to develop evaluations 3. Present new material : 3. Present new material Your teaching depends on your analysis and preparation
From general to specific
From lower level objectives to higher
From previous information to new material 3. Present new material : 3. Present new material Lectures
Be aware of attention spans … _____ minutes (20)
Be aware of the number of major points made … _____ (5)
Review and summarize 3. Present new material : 3. Present new material Demonstrations
Learning Activity, experiment, demonstration
Allow students to practice immediately 4. Guided practice with corrective feedback : 4. Guided practice with corrective feedback Guided and independent practice
Teacher controls & monitors guided
Teacher evaluates & corrects independent
Questions should be prepared in advance 5. Assign independent practice with corrective feedback : 5. Assign independent practice with corrective feedback Homework
A formative step … not a summative step
Worksheets 6. Review periodically with corrective feedback if necessary : 6. Review periodically with corrective feedback if necessary Check homework promptly
Base new instruction on results
Re-teach if necessary Other Teaching Techniques : Other Teaching Techniques Brainstorming
Situations for use:
Generate ideas (quantity is more important than quality)
Students have some level of experience
Formulate the question
Plan for recording ideas Brainstorming Steps : Brainstorming Steps Pose question to class
Generate ideas with group
Accept all ideas (do not criticize)
Go back to summarize
Discard “unacceptable” or unworkable ideas
Determine the best solution(s) Supervised Study : Supervised Study Common technique used in problem solving instruction, but certainly not the only technique appropriate for problem solving instruction.
Also a major technique used in competency-based education programs.
Often misused technique. A really bad form of this technique is: Read the chapter in the textbook and answer the questions at the end of the chapter.
Would be classified as an individualized instruction technique. Supervised Study : Supervised Study Situations Appropriate for Use
Discovery or inquiry learning is desired
Access to good reference materials (textbooks, extension publications, web resources, industry publications, etc.)
Students may need to “look up” information
May be alternate answers that are acceptable
Many structured lab activities are actually a form of supervised study Supervised Study : Supervised Study Strengths:
Provides skills in learning that are useful throughout students’ lives. They need to know how to locate and analyze information.
Recall is enhanced when student have to “look up” information, rather than being lectured to.
Students have to decide what information is important and related to the question posed.
Opportunity for students to develop writing and analytical skills. Supervised Study : Supervised Study Weaknesses:
Easy for students to get off-task.
Students may interpret questions differently and locate incorrect information (practicing error).
Unmotivated students will do the absolute minimum.
Students tend to copy information from sources rather than analyze and synthesize information
Requires more time than lecture
Relies on students being able to read and comprehend information at the appropriate level Supervised Study : Supervised Study Procedures in Conducting Supervised Study:
Teacher develops a list of study questions for students to answer.
Resources and reference materials are located or suggested to students as possible sources of answers.
Students are given time in class to find answers to the questions and to record the answers in their notes.
Note: Due to time constraints, teachers may want to assign different questions to specific students, so that every student is not looking for the same information.
Summary consists of discussing the correct answers to the questions with the entire class.
Note: Teachers must be careful to emphasize that incorrect answers must be corrected. Supervised Study : Supervised Study Role of the Teacher:
Develop a list of study questions that focus on the objectives of the lesson
Develop the anticipated answers to the questions--it is important that the teacher have a firm idea of what are correct or incorrect answers.
Establish time frame for completing the activity. Students need to feel a sense of urgency, so don’t give them more time than you think they will need.
Supervise during this activity. NOT A TIME TO GRADE PAPERS, MAKE PHONE CALLS, PLAN FOR THE NEXT LESSON, OR LOCATE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS IN THIS LESSON!
Assist students in locating information, but do not find it for them.
Keep students on task and eliminate distractions.
Plan for reporting of answers Small Group Discussion : Small Group Discussion Also Called:
6 people per group
6 ideas to be generated
6 minutes Small Group Discussion : Small Group Discussion Advantages:
Good for generating ideas
Cooperative activity (students learn from each other) Small Group Discussion : Small Group Discussion Planning Required
Clearly form the question or topic
Develop a plan for grouping the students
Plan for reporting
Summarize the activity (what they should have learned) Small Group Discussion : Small Group Discussion Conducting Small Group Discussion
Write question or topic on board or handout
Give specific instructions on how the group will operate
Establish time limits
Circulate among the groups to help keep them on task (Not as a participant!)
Give warning near end of time allocated
Reports: Rotate among the groups for answers Role Play : Role Play Situations for use:
Introducing a lesson
Checking for understanding
Summarizing Role Play : Role Play Planning Required:
Minimum: key points to cover
Role play Summary
Keep it short
Use to make a single point, not several points Games : Games Situations for use:
Check for understanding
Active learning technique
Appeals to competitive students
High interest level Games : Games Planning Required
Game must be developed by teacher
Rules must be established. Try to anticipate all potential situations that might occur. You do not want the effectiveness of the activity to be destroyed by arguments over rules.
Develop a plan for determining teams
Develop plan for keeping score
Determine rewards--make them appropriate (usually very minor in nature) Games : Games Types: Games may take a variety of forms, but most often they are modeled after:
TV game shows
Home board games Field Trips and Resource Persons : Field Trips and Resource Persons Situations for use:
First hand experiences are needed
These appear to be different techniques, but the planning required is very similar Field Trips/Resource Persons : Field Trips/Resource Persons Planning Needed:
Special considerations (safety, grouping, etc.)
Summarize (don’t give up responsibility!). It is critical to know what the students have learned from the activity.
Provide advance organizers (report forms, fact sheets)
“plant” questions among students
assign students to begin the questions