Ultrasound Workshop TEST

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Equine Reproductive Ultrasound Workshop : 

Equine Reproductive Ultrasound Workshop Jim Kubiak, Ph.D. Equine Reproductive Physiologist The Breeder’s Assistant

Mare Reproductive Anatomy : 

Mare Reproductive Anatomy Reproductive tract suspended by broad ligament. Sits on top of digestive tract, thus not in fixed location (especially ovaries). Reproductive tract scanned through rectal wall. Bladder located below vagina. Uterine body - near front (or toward front) of bladder. Ovaries usually located near point of hip/loin. Oviducts connect uterine horns to ovaries. Too small to visualize with ultrasound, thus ovaries can, at times, be difficult to locate.

Mare Reproductive Anatomy : 

Mare Reproductive Anatomy Majority of reproductive tract within abdominal cavity. Rectal wall fairly tough, but not thick, thus potential exists for rectal tears. Tears through the rectal wall are always fatal, resulting in peritonitis and death within 24 hours. Firm pressure with the probe against the rectal wall can be used and is often necessary to obtain a clear image – use flat, even (not pointed) pressure . Potential for rectal tears is why equine reproductive ultrasound is often considered a veterinary practice. Thus training provided is for scanning your own mares.

How Ultrasound Works : 

How Ultrasound Works Piezoelectric Crystals within Probe: Resonate and emit ultrasound pulses. Reflected pulses (echoes) are displayed on screen. White – Solid material (e.g. bone) or tissue interfaces Gray – Most other tissues (e.g. uterine, ovarian, muscle, etc.) and some fluids (equine urine, some uterine fluids, etc.) Black (no reflection) – Many fluids (e.g. follicular fluid, embryonic fluid, blood, some uterine fluids, etc.) Cross-sectional image displayed on screen: Like “live black and white TV”.

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