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Slide 5: By the seventeenth century, cricket had evolved enough to be recognisable as a distinct game. Till the middle of eighteenth century, bats were roughly the same shape as hockey sticks, curving outwards at the bottom. PECULIARITY OF CRICKET : PECULIARITY OF CRICKET One of the peculiarities of cricket is that a test match can go on for five days and still end in a draw. No other team sport takes even half as much time to complete. A football match is generally over in an hour-and-a-half. Even baseball completes nine innings in less than half the time that it takes to play a limited-overs match, the shortened version of modern cricket! CHARACTERISTICS OF CRICKET : CHARACTERISTICS OF CRICKET A curious characteristic of cricket is that the length of the pitch is specified-22yards-but the size or shape of the ground is not. Slide 8: Grounds can be oval like the Adelaide Oval or nearly circular, like Chepauk in Chennai. A six at the Melbourne Cricket Ground needs to clear much more ground than it does at Feroz Shah Kotla in Delhi. ABOUT CRICKET : ABOUT CRICKET Cricket was the earliest modern team sport to be codified. The first written ‘Law of Cricket’ were drawn up in 1744. They stated, “the principals shall choose from amongst the gentlemen present two umpires who shall absolutely decide all disputes. Slide 10: The stumps must be 22 inches high and the bail across them 6 inches. The ball must be between 5 and 6 ounces, and the two sets of stumps 22 yards apart”. Slide 11: The world’s first cricket club was formed in Hambledon in the 1760s and the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) was founded in 1787. Slide 12: During the 1760s and 1770s it became common to pitch the ball through the air rather than roll it along the ground. Slide 13: This change gave bowlers the option of length, deception through the air, plus increased pace. Slide 14: It also opened new possibilities for spin and swing. Slide 15: In response, batsmen had to master timing and shot selection. Slide 16: One immediate result was the replacement of curved bat with the straight one. Slide 17: The weight of the ball was limited to between 5 ½ to 5 ¾ , and the width of the bat to 4 inches. Slide 18: IN 1774, the first leg-before law was published. Also this time, a third stump became common. : By 1780, three days had become the length of a major match, and this year also saw the creation of the first six-seam cricket ball. TOOLS OF CRICKET : TOOLS OF CRICKET Cricket’s most important tools are all made of natural, pre-industrial materials. The bat is made with leather, twine and cork. Even today both bat and ball are handmade, not industrially manufactured. The material of the bat changed slightly over time. Once it was cut out of a single piece of wood. Now it consists of two pieces, the blade which is made out of the wood of the willow tree and the handle which is made out of cane. Slide 21: Unlike golf and tennis, cricket has refused to remake its tools with industrial or man-made materials: plastic, fibreglass and metal have been firmly rejected. Slide 22: The invention of vulcanised rubber led to the introduction of pads in 1848 and protective gloves soon afterwards, and the modern game would be unimaginable without helmets made out of metal and synthetic lightweight materials. ORIGINS OF INDIAN CRICKET : ORIGINS OF INDIAN CRICKET The origins of Indian cricket are to be found Bombay and the Indian community to start playing the game was the small community of Zoroastrians, the Parsis. Brought into close contact with the British because of their interest in trade and the first Indian community to westernise. Slide 24: The Parsis founded the first Indian cricket club, the Oriental Cricket Club, in Bombay in 1848. Parsi clubs were funded and sponsored by Parsi businessmen like the Tatas and the Wadias. QUARREL BETWEEN PARSIS AND THE BOMBAY GYMKHANA : QUARREL BETWEEN PARSIS AND THE BOMBAY GYMKHANA The white cricket elite in India offered no help to the enthusiastic Parsis. In fact, there was quarrel between the Bombay Gymkhana, a whites only club, and Parsi cricketers over the use of public park. The Parsis complained that the park was left unfit for cricket because the polo ponies of the Bombay Gymkhana dug up the surface. Slide 26: When it became clear that the colonial authorities were prejudiced in favour of their white compatriots, the Parsis built there own gymkhana to play cricket in. The rivalry between the Parsis and the Bombay Gymkhana had a happy ending for these pioneers of Indian cricket. A Parsi team beat the Bombay Gymkhana at cricket in 1889, just 4 years after the foundation of the Indian National Congress in 1885,an organisation that was lucky to have amongst its early leaders the great Parsi statesman and intellectual Dadabhai Naoroji. MODERN CRICKET : MODERN CRICKET Modern cricket is dominated by Tests and One-day internationals, played between national teams. The players who become famous, who live on in the memories of cricket’s public, are those who have played for their country. Slide 28: The players Indian fans remember even now are those who were fortunate enough to play Test cricket. C.K. Nayudu, an outstanding Indian batsman of his time. Palwankar Baloo, the greatest slow bowler of his time. Sir Donald Bradman, the best ever batsman in the history of cricket. INDIA IN THE WORLD OF TEST CRICKET : INDIA IN THE WORLD OF TEST CRICKET India entered the world of Test cricket in 1932, a decade and a half before it became an independent nation. This was possible because Test cricket from its origins in 1877 was organised as a contest between different parts of the British empire, not sovereign nations. FIRST TEST MATCH : FIRST TEST MATCH The first test was played between England and Australia when Australia was still a white-settler colony. MEDIA’S INFLUENCE ON CRICKET : MEDIA’S INFLUENCE ON CRICKET Television coverage changed cricket. It expanded the audience for the game by beaming cricket into small towns and villages. It also broadened cricket’s social base. Children who had never previously had the chance to watch international cricket because they lived outside the big cities, could now watch and learn by imitating their heroes. Slide 32: The technology of satellite television and the world-wide reach of multi-national television companies created a global market for cricket. Matches in Sydney could now be watched live in Surat. CHANGES THAT CAME INTO CRICKET LATER ON : CHANGES THAT CAME INTO CRICKET LATER ON The changes are: the replacement of the gentlemanly amateur by the paid professional, the triumph of the one-day as it overshadowed Test cricket in terms of popularity, and the remarkable changes in global commerce and technology. EXERCISES : EXERCISES ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS IN ONE WORD (i) In which place was cricket born? (ii) What do you mean by term ‘bat’? (iii) Where is the Chepauk cricket ground situated? (iv) Where is the Melbourne cricket ground situated? (v) Which is the world’s first cricket club? (HINT:MCC) (vi) Which was the first Indian community to play cricket? Slide 35: FILL IN THE BLANKS (i) The length of a cricket pitch is ________. (ii) The first written ‘Laws of Cricket’ were drawn up in _______. (iii) The world’s first cricket club was formed in _________. (iv) The weight of the ball is limited to between _____ and ______ ounces. (v) Cricket is originally a ___________ game. (vi) The first Indian community to play cricket is a small community of ____________. Slide 36: STATE TRUE OR FALSE India joined the world of test cricket before independence.=_______ The colonisers did nothing to encourage the Parsis in playing cricket.=_______ Palwankar Baloo was India’s first Test captain.=_______ Australia played it’s first Test against England as a sovereign nation.=_______ You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.