introduction and tropical fruits

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Slide 1: 

Nandan P Gowda M.Sc(Horticulture)

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Word first used in 1600’s Comes from two Latin words Hortus “Garden” Cultura “Cultivation” Horticulture means “cultivated garden” or “culture of garden plants” Defined as the crop science which deals with the production, utilization and improvement of fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, spices and plantation crops including medicinal and aromatic plants.

History of horticulture : 

History of horticulture Moghuls introduced and improved grapes, apple, walnut apart from developing gardens Vatsyayana in his literary work mentioned the importance flower and vegetable in garden. It is the duty of good housewife to maintain a kitchen garden Akbar’s lakhbagh in Darbhanga contains one hundred thousand with collection of improved varieties Mohammedens are connoisseurs of Mango Liberty Hyde Bailey, Jr. (1858-1954. professor of horticulture at Michigan State University and then Cornell University. He founded The American Society for Horticultural Science and the Botanical Society of America. Dr. M.H. Marigowda is known as father of Horticulture in India

Horticulture Vs Agriculture : 

Horticulture Vs Agriculture

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ICMR recommends 90 gm fruits and 284 gm of vegetables. Whereas, present availability works out to 55 gm and 125 of each respectively.

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To meet calorific requirement of one individual, it would be essential to grow 0.6 ha or wheat or 0.04 ha of banana or 0.2 ha of mango

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Occupy only 7.00 % cropped area contribution 18 to 20 % of the total value of the agricultural produce The agriculture sector accounts for about 25 percent of our export basket. Of this, horticultural crops alone account for over 56 per cent of the total earnings from agriculture sector These crops fetch 20–30 times more foreign exchange per unit area than cereals due to higher yields and higher prices available in the international market Ex- Pomegranate

Branches of Horticulture : 

Branches of Horticulture Pomology: Branch dealing with cultivation of fruit crops Olericulture: Branch dealing with cultivation of vegetable crops Ornamental horticulture: a) Commercial floriculture b) Arboriculture c) landscape gardening Plantation crops and spices Medicinal plants and aromatic plants Preservation of fruits and vegetables

King of fruit……… Mango : 

King of fruit……… Mango Cultivation dates back to 4000 years Grown in more than 110 countries It’s a typical biennial ? bearer Propagation- Grafting Uses- as vegetable Burnt leaves as antiseptic Dried flowers for stomachache Seed kernel has 9.5 % protien Spacing- 8 X 8 m or 10 X 10 m 2.5 X 2.5 m (HDP) for Amrapali variety Fertilizer- FYM- 25 tonnes/ha, NPK- 730: 180: 680 gm/plant/year (for karnataka)

Inter cropping in mango : 

Inter cropping in mango

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Alphonso Dashehari Dashehari

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Colored varieties- lal malgoa, janardhan pasand, suvarnarekha Varieties for export- Alphonso, Neelum, Banganpalli Mango hybrids- Amrapali (Dashehari X Neelum) Mallika (Neelum X Dashehari) Ratna (Neelum X alphonso) Sindhu (Ratna X Alphonso)

Problems associated with mango cultivation : 

Problems associated with mango cultivation Physiological disorders Fruit drop: NAA (25-40 ppm) CCC (200 ppm) Irregular bearing: Smudging (practiced in Philippines and Java) Spongy tissue: Common in Alphonso Disease Powdery mildew: Apply Sulphur dust (350 mesh) or spray Wettable sulphur 0.2% or Tridemorph 0.05%. Anthracnose and stalk end-rot: Spray Mancozeb 2g/lit or Carbendazim 1g/lit or Thiophanate Sooty mould: Spray phosphamidon 40 SL @ 2 ml/ litre + Maida 5% (1 kg Maida or starch) boiled with 1 lit of water and diluted to 20 litres. Avoid spraying during cloudy weather.

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Mango for exporting

Apple of paradise…………… Banana : 

Apple of paradise…………… Banana Cheapest and plentiful fruit Staple food in Uganda, Bukoba and Tanzania Global export is 15.5 million tonnes Malaysia is considered as primary centre of origin Climate and soil: Requires annual rainfall of 100-325 cm. below 10 0 C growth is impeded Bunching during heavy windy season should be avoided,

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Propogation: suckers and tissue culture plants Planting season: determined by market demand, agro climatic condition Spacing: 1.5x1.5 for DC, 2.4x2.4 for Robusta. 3x3 for poovan. HDP 1.2 X 1.2 dwarf cavendish Manures and fertilizers: Pottasium is most wanted. Fertilizers should be applied within 6 months of planting 200: 120: 250 g/plant/year (Karnataka) Tissue cultured plant Sucker

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Irrigation: requires large amount of water Fertigation (combination drip irrigation and fertilization) saves 40-70% water and fertilser up to 25% Desuckering: removal of surplus suckers Propping: support to the pseudostem during time of bunch emergence Wrapping: polythene sheet improves quality Denavelling: Removal of male bud

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Drip irrigation system Denavelled bunch

Varieties : 

Varieties Dwarf cavendish, Grand naine and Robusta for international market Poovan, Rasthali, Virupakshi (Hill banana) and chakkarakeli for internal market Nendran, Monthan and Ney vannan for culinary purpose Udayam – New variety which is suitable for wind prone areas Nendan Grand naine Poovan

Pest and disease : 

Pest and disease Banana psedo stem weevil: Quinolphos (0.05 %) Rhizome weevil: spraying phosphamidon (0.03%) Aphid: malation(0.03%) Nematodes: neem cake (1 kg/pl) and carbofuron (0.5 g ai/pl) Bunchy top: removal of infested plants Panama wilt: Dipping suckers with bavistin (0.2 %) Sigatoka: bordeaux mixture (1%) or dithane M 45 (0.2%) Bunchy top Panama wilt Rhizome weevil

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INTRODUCTION Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an ancient fruit originated in Persia (Modern Iran), Afghanistan and Baluchistan Exact date or its introduction in India is not known Pomegranate is cultivated in the arid and semiarid regions of Maharashtra, Andra Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajastan, Uttar Pradesh, Haryan, karnataka and Tamil Nadu Maharashtra is the largest producer In India area is about 63,000 ha and annual production is about 5 lakh tones According to 1990-2000 data in Karnataka area is about 10,689 ha with annul production of about 1.15 lakh tones

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Climate and soil Thrives well both in hot and cold condition Hot and dry weather during flowering and fruit development is necessary for good quality fruit Propagation: cuttings Planting: Spacing: 4-5 m, 5x2 m in HDP Manures and fertilizers: FYM 25 kg/pl/year 600: 200: 200 g NPK/pl/year Irrigation: through drip @ 8 L/hour/day reduce fruit craking and increase yield and quality

Problems in pomegranate cultivation : 

Problems in pomegranate cultivation Fruit cracking: serious malady in dry arid conditions of the arid zones. Cracked fruits are sweeter but unfit for shipment boron and calcium deficiency is one of the reason Anar fruit fly: carbaryl (0.2%) phosphamidon(0.03 %) Bacterial blight: Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Punicae. Andhra Pradesh, Maharastra and Karnataka State The disease was most severe in Karnataka and recorded in a range of 60 to 90 percent incidence.

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Ganesh Mridula Arakta Bagwa/Kesar

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GRAPE (vitis vinifera) CULTIVATION

Basic information about crop : 

Basic information about crop Name Grape Botanical name Vitis vinifera L. Family Vitaceae Origin Black sea to caspian sea

Grape varieties based on purpose : 

Grape varieties based on purpose Table grapes: Beauty Seedless, Perlette, Delight, Pusa Seedless, Thompson Seedless, Cardinal, Anab-e-Shahi, Early Muscat, Gulabi, Black Champa and Cheema Sahebi. Raisin grapes: Thompson Seedless, Pusa Seedless, Black Corinth, Muscat of Alexandria and Kishmish Beli. Juice grapes: Banglore Blue, Beauty Seedless, Early Muscat, Champion and Black Champa. Canning grapes: Thompson Seedless, Perlette and Pusa Seedless. Wine grapes: Muscat Canelli, Bangalore Blue, Black Champa and beauty seedless. White Riesling, Pinot Noir, Char Donnay, Carignane, Cabernet Sauvignon, Tinta Madeira, Chianti Classio and Sangiovese.

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Cabernet Sauvignon: Muscat: Red wine White wine

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Propagation: cuttings and grafting Soils: well drained, good water holding capacity and with water table at least 6.5m below, pH range of 6.5-8.0 . Climate: Cold hardiness is a major limiting factor for Vinifera grapes. Damage to primary buds occurs at 0 to -10 o F, and trunks may be injured or killed below -10°F.

Planting : 

Planting Season of Planting November-January in Central India, December-January in south Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and February-March in North India. Spacing Maharashtra and north interior Karnataka, Thompson Seedless 1.2 x 3.6m or 1.8 x 2.4m. 4.5 x 4.5m (Anab-e-Shahi), 7.2 x 3.6m (Bangalore Blue) and 3.0 x 3.0m for Perlette and Beauty Seedless varieties. Fertilizers: 266:355:266 NPK kg/ha Land Preparation Rows are oriented in the north-south.

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Bower System Head system Four-Arm Kniffin System Gable System

Effect of growth regulators (GA- gibberlic acid) on Grapes : 

Effect of growth regulators (GA- gibberlic acid) on Grapes

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Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) Spraying Wettable Sulphur (1.5kg/200 litres of water) or Sulphur dusting (20kg/ha). Bordeaux mixture (1%), Copper Oxychloride (0.2%), Mancozeb (0.2%), Metalaxyl (0.2%) or Fosetyl Al (0.2%). Powdery Mildew Presence of white powdery (ash like) coating in patches on both sides of the leaves, young shoots and immature berries.

Major Wine markets of the World : 

Major Wine markets of the World World’s total annual production 32 billion litres, following countries and MNC’s have their major share in the world wine market. France         : 5.6 billion ltrs Italy             : 5.3     “ Spain           : 3.5     “ US               : 2.2     “ Argentina    : 1.4     “ Germany     : 1.0     “ South Africa    : 770 million ltrs Australia      : 750    “ China           : 690    “ Gallo (MNC) : 675    “ Portugal        : 611    “ Australia, exports 230 million litres annually worth more than 1 billion dollars and UK is its major market worth $489 million.

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small scale winery - grape press and fermentation vats large scale fermentation vats Oak casks for aging wine

citrus : 

citrus Citriculture is the largest fruit industry in India occupying eight percent of the total area under fruit crops next to mango and banana Genus citrus comprises of 2 sub genera, 16 species and 18 botanical varieties Area and Production of citrus in India Area Production (000 ha) (000 MT) Sweet orange 712.4 5996.9 & Mandarin Lime & Lemons 167.9 1541.8

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Sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) MANDARIN ACID LIME LEMON (Citrus limon)

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Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) PUMMELO (Citrus maxima)

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Soil: Ideal pH 5.5 - 7.5. Avoid saline-alkaline & acidic soil Climate: Ideal temperature range 28-32oc.High moisture stress limits the growth. High temperature at flowering results in low fruit set Propagation: Budding Fertilizers: 550: 370: 550 g NPK /tree/year – Karnataka

Citrus decline : 

Citrus decline Climate: Too high or low temp Soil: Hard pan soil. High ot low pH Nutrition: Zn, Cu, B, Fe deficinecy Pathological: Virus, fungal, bacterial and mycoplasma Physiological: Granulation, creasing, splitting of fruits

Disease : 

Disease Citrus canker :Xanthomonas axonopodis Pruning and destruction of infected twigs followed by three to four sprays with copper oxy chloride (COC) 0.3% + streptocycline 100 ppm at monthly intervals after the onset of monsoon. Gummosis: For the control of gummosis, scraping of the affected parts followed by application of Metalaxyl MZ-72 paste Or 1% Bordeaux paste

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Packaging containers 1. Corrugated fiber board cartons (50x30x30 cm size) for “Nagpur” mandarin. These are suitable for distant transport and have sufficient strength to withstand storage conditions at 90-95% RH.2. Corrugated boxes (universal RSC type and telescopic type) from cotton plant stalks (CPS) Kraft paper have been developed

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Mechanized packing line : The mechanized processes of sorting, washing, was coating and size grading have been standardized on 1 ton per hour capacity packing line.

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Pre-cooling in Nagpur mandarin fruits : Pre-cooling unit with ½ ton fruit holding capacity has been developed for forced-air cooling.

SAPOTA(Manilkara zapota) : 

SAPOTA(Manilkara zapota) popularly known in India as chiku, is native to tropical America Most probably to south Mexico or Central America.  This plant is also grown for its Latex The fruit is a good source of digestible sugar (12-18%) and an appreciable source of protein, fat fibre ad minerals, Calcium and Iron.  It has become a very popular fruit crop in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.

There are about 41 varieties spread all over the country.  However, commercially sapota industry is based on a few varieties and in some areas it is only monoculture like Kalipatti in Gujarat and Maharashtra. : 

There are about 41 varieties spread all over the country.  However, commercially sapota industry is based on a few varieties and in some areas it is only monoculture like Kalipatti in Gujarat and Maharashtra. Varieties

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Propagation: Inarching, using Manilkara hexandra (called khirni or rayan in India) as a rootstock, is used in India Planting and spacing: Depending on growth habit, sapota orchards are planted at 10x 10cm but being slower in growth, it takes longer period to occupy allotted space.Therefore, high density plantations having 5 m x 5 m spacing up to the age of 13 years are very remunerative. Thereafter yields begin to decline. Manuring: 50 kg FYM, 400: 160: 450 gm NPK/pl/year Sapota harvestor

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Wood apple Bael Avocado (butter fruit) Fig

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