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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Daydreaming : Daydreaming D Doan, Brian Gee, Esther Lee, Julie Tran COGS 175 March 5, 2008 OVERVIEW : OVERVIEW Introduction to daydreaming (Julie) Content and function (Brian) Developmental changes (Esther) Sleepiness and daydreaming study (D) DEFINITION : DEFINITION “Daydreaming represents a shift of attention away from some primary physical or mental task we have set for ourselves, or away from directly looking at or listening to something in the external environment, toward an unfolding sequence of private responses made to some internal stimulus.” -Jerome L. Singer, 1975 HISTORY : HISTORY Negative reputation Associated with laziness 1800s – daydreams = self-gratifying attempts at "wish fulfillment” (Nelson) 1950s – parents warned not to let their children daydream 1960s – Singer & Antrobus created daydream questionnaire called the Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI) CHARACTERISTICS : CHARACTERISTICS Occurs in private world Begins spontaneously Triggered by internal or external stimuli or cues (Klinger, 1990) Deals most often with life concerns Lack of self-awareness Dissociation from waking MAJOR FORMS : MAJOR FORMS The ongoing stream of associations, interior monologues and occasional elaborated fantasies of a spontaneous nature associated with particular problems or chains of thought The repeated, complex fantasies involving self-created, colorful characters who act out evolving story lines CONTENT : CONTENT Activity-related content Rehearsal of alternatives Judgment making Fantasy-related content Exploration of “what might be” Freedom from logical constraints CONTENTButler (2006) : CONTENTButler (2006) Key structural aspects Positive orientation Negative emotional tone Mind wandering FUNCTION Butler (2006) : FUNCTION Butler (2006) Absorption suggests assignment of cognitive resources Engage unconscious processes Intuition Creativity FUNCTION : FUNCTION A form of mental processing Recall of “current” memories Resolution of daily issues Disruption of processing Depression Post Traumatic Stress Disorder DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES : DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES Age affects frequency and content of daydreams Giambra (2000) 1782 women; 1545 men 17-95 years old Longitudinal and cross-sectional study Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI) Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI) : Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI) (Singer & Antrobus, 1970) Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI) : Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI) (Singer & Antrobus, 1970) DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGESGiambra (2000) : DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGESGiambra (2000) As age increases… Daydream frequency ? Absorption or dominance of attention ? Visual imagery ? Slide 15: As age increases… Problem solving daydreams – little change Bizarre-improbable daydreams – U-shaped age function DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGESGiambra (2000) Slide 16: As age increases… Decreased daydreaming in the following types: Sexual Heroic Achievement-oriented Fear of failure Hostile Guilt DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGESGiambra (2000) DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES : DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES What might account for reduced daydreaming with increased age? Redirection and reduction of attentional resources Biological degradation in the brain Possible Suggestive Connections betweenSleep & Daydreaming : Possible Suggestive Connections betweenSleep & Daydreaming Decreases in duration of REM as we age Similar Content Life concerns list daydream 65% (Gold and Reilly 1985) ˜ night dreams 71% (Nikles et al, 1998) Auditory imagery Daydream nearly 50% (Klinger 1993) ˜ REM dream 53%(Zadra et al 1998 ) Possible Suggestive Connections betweenSleep & Daydreaming : Possible Suggestive Connections betweenSleep & Daydreaming Similar 90 minute cycle to REM Kripke and Sonnenschein 1978 Slide 20: The Effect of Experimentally Enhanced Daydreaming on an Electroencephalographic Measure of Sleepiness (Pritzl 2003) Hypothesis: Daydreaming as Restoration similar to sleep SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING : SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING Experimental Paradigm Daydream Prevention vs. Daydream Induction EEG as index of sleepiness/sleep deprivation (theta/alpha ratio) SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING : SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING Hypotheses Enhancement group ? daydreaming than relax group Enhancement group ? decreases in initial level of sleepiness ill-rested ? daydream than well-rested those who had more daydreaming should have ? reduction in sleepiness SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING : SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING Results Hypotheses 1 & 2 were not supported Hypothesis 3 supported Hypothesis 4 reversed those who had more daydreaming should have ? reduction in sleepiness, but instead had no less reduction in sleepiness SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING : SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING Interpretation Daydreaming does not compensate for sleep deprivation, but may be a response to sleep deprivation Is daydreaming an alternate state of consciousness? : Is daydreaming an alternate state of consciousness? Involuntary generation Vivid imagery Shift in attention Dissociation from external stimuli Similarity to other alternate states of consciousness REFERENCES : REFERENCES Butler, L. B. (2006). Normative dissociation. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 29(1), 45. Giambra, L. (2000). Daydreaming characteristics across the life-span: Age differences and seven to twenty year longitudinal changes. (pp. 147)John Benjamins Publishing Company. Klinger, E. (1990). Daydreaming. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher. Pritzl, T. (2003). The effect of experimentally enhanced daydreaming on an electroencephalographic measure of sleepiness. Singer, J.L. (1975). The inner world of daydreaming. New York: Harper & Row. Singer, J.L., & Antrobus, J.S. (1970) Manual for the Imaginal Processes Inventory. Princeton, N.J.: Education Testing Service. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.