Daydreaming : Daydreaming D Doan, Brian Gee, Esther Lee, Julie Tran
March 5, 2008 OVERVIEW : OVERVIEW Introduction to daydreaming (Julie)
Content and function (Brian)
Developmental changes (Esther)
Sleepiness and daydreaming study (D) DEFINITION : DEFINITION “Daydreaming represents a shift of attention away from some primary physical or mental task we have set for ourselves, or away from directly looking at or listening to something in the external environment, toward an unfolding sequence of private responses made to some internal stimulus.”
-Jerome L. Singer, 1975 HISTORY : HISTORY Negative reputation
Associated with laziness
1800s – daydreams = self-gratifying attempts at "wish fulfillment” (Nelson)
1950s – parents warned not to let their children daydream
1960s – Singer & Antrobus created daydream questionnaire called the Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI) CHARACTERISTICS : CHARACTERISTICS Occurs in private world
Triggered by internal or external stimuli or cues (Klinger, 1990)
Deals most often with life concerns
Lack of self-awareness
Dissociation from waking MAJOR FORMS : MAJOR FORMS The ongoing stream of associations, interior monologues and occasional elaborated fantasies of a spontaneous nature associated with particular problems or chains of thought
The repeated, complex fantasies involving self-created, colorful characters who act out evolving story lines CONTENT : CONTENT Activity-related content
Rehearsal of alternatives
Exploration of “what might be”
Freedom from logical constraints CONTENTButler (2006) : CONTENTButler (2006) Key structural aspects
Negative emotional tone
Mind wandering FUNCTION Butler (2006) : FUNCTION Butler (2006) Absorption suggests assignment of cognitive resources
Engage unconscious processes
Creativity FUNCTION : FUNCTION A form of mental processing
Recall of “current” memories
Resolution of daily issues
Disruption of processing
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES : DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES Age affects frequency and content of daydreams
1782 women; 1545 men
17-95 years old
Longitudinal and cross-sectional study
Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI) Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI) : Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI) (Singer & Antrobus, 1970) Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI) : Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI) (Singer & Antrobus, 1970) DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGESGiambra (2000) : DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGESGiambra (2000) As age increases…
Daydream frequency ?
Absorption or dominance of attention ?
Visual imagery ? Slide 15: As age increases…
Problem solving daydreams – little change
Bizarre-improbable daydreams – U-shaped age function DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGESGiambra (2000) Slide 16: As age increases…
Decreased daydreaming in the following types:
Fear of failure
Guilt DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGESGiambra (2000) DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES : DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES What might account for reduced daydreaming with increased age?
Redirection and reduction of attentional resources
Biological degradation in the brain Possible Suggestive Connections betweenSleep & Daydreaming : Possible Suggestive Connections betweenSleep & Daydreaming Decreases in duration of REM as we age
Life concerns list
daydream 65% (Gold and Reilly 1985) ˜ night dreams 71% (Nikles et al, 1998)
Daydream nearly 50% (Klinger 1993) ˜ REM dream 53%(Zadra et al 1998 ) Possible Suggestive Connections betweenSleep & Daydreaming : Possible Suggestive Connections betweenSleep & Daydreaming Similar 90 minute cycle to REM
Kripke and Sonnenschein 1978 Slide 20: The Effect of Experimentally Enhanced Daydreaming on an Electroencephalographic Measure of Sleepiness
Hypothesis: Daydreaming as Restoration similar to sleep SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING : SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING Experimental Paradigm
Daydream Prevention vs. Daydream Induction
EEG as index of sleepiness/sleep deprivation
(theta/alpha ratio) SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING : SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING Hypotheses
Enhancement group ? daydreaming than relax group
Enhancement group ? decreases in initial level of sleepiness
ill-rested ? daydream than well-rested
those who had more daydreaming should have ? reduction in sleepiness SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING : SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING Results
Hypotheses 1 & 2 were not supported
Hypothesis 3 supported
Hypothesis 4 reversed
those who had more daydreaming should have ? reduction in sleepiness, but instead had no less reduction in sleepiness SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING : SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING Interpretation
Daydreaming does not compensate for sleep deprivation, but may be a response to sleep deprivation Is daydreaming an alternate state of consciousness? : Is daydreaming an alternate state of consciousness? Involuntary generation
Shift in attention
Dissociation from external stimuli
Similarity to other alternate states of consciousness REFERENCES : REFERENCES Butler, L. B. (2006). Normative dissociation. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 29(1), 45.
Giambra, L. (2000). Daydreaming characteristics across the life-span: Age differences and seven to twenty year longitudinal changes. (pp. 147)John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Klinger, E. (1990). Daydreaming. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher.
Pritzl, T. (2003). The effect of experimentally enhanced daydreaming on an electroencephalographic measure of sleepiness.
Singer, J.L. (1975). The inner world of daydreaming. New York: Harper & Row.
Singer, J.L., & Antrobus, J.S. (1970) Manual for the Imaginal Processes Inventory. Princeton, N.J.: Education Testing Service.