Research in social sciences-By: Prof. Namita S. Sahare

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SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF SOCIAL RESEARCH : 

Prof. Namita S. Sahare S.P. Mandali’s Tilak College of Education, Affiiated to University of PUNE, India SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF SOCIAL RESEARCH

The social sciences are the fields of academic scholarship that explore aspects of human-society ie anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography,history, linguistics, political science, international studies Social Sciences

Social research refers to research conducted by social scientists. : 

Social research methods may be divided into two broad categories: Quantitative designs approach social phenomena through quantifiable evidence, and often rely on statistical analysis of many cases (or across intentionally designed treatments in an experiment) to create valid and reliable general claims Qualitative designs emphasize understanding of social phenomena through direct observation, communication with participants, or analysis of texts, and may stress contextual and subjective accuracy over generality Social research refers to research conducted by social scientists.

Sociology focuses primarily on the influence of social relationships upon people’s attitudes and behavior and on how societies are established and change. : 

Sociology and the Other Sciences 1. Sociology is defined as “the scientific study of society and human behavior.” 2. Science is the systematic methods used to obtain knowledge and the knowledge obtained by those methods. 3. Science can be divided into the Natural Sciences and the Social Sciences. 4. The natural sciences attempt to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environment. 5. Social sciences attempt to objectively study the social world. Like the natural sciences, the social sciences are divided into specialized fields based on their subject matter. 6. Political science focuses on politics or government. Sociology focuses primarily on the influence of social relationships upon people’s attitudes and behavior and on how societies are established and change.

SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF SOCIAL RESEARCH : 

In order to interpret and discuss social reality we must first have a picture, some sort of pattern, or an image of the interrelationships amongst the many variables that circumscribe human interaction. The SCIENTIFIC METHOD or METHODOLOGY provides a systematic, organized series of steps that insures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem. It provides a shared basis for discussion and analysis, and helps to promote reliability and validity (consistency and accuracy). The information provided through this method, the patterns and interrelationships are then explained through Theoretical analysis. Theory directs research and research informs theory (Reflexivity). SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF SOCIAL RESEARCH

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Qualitative Research…involves finding out what people think, and how they feel - or at any rate, what they say they think and how they say they feel. This kind of information is subjective. It involves feelings and impressions, rather than numbers’ Bellenger, Bernhardt and Goldstucker, Qualitative Research in Marketing, American Marketing Association

Is Sociology Science? : 

Sociology cannot use laboratory experiments to test theories It cannot isolate the variables in a situation But this is true of cosmology, meteorology, volcanologist and animal behavior which are also open systems . This does not stop theories being tested by observation Sociologists claim that comparative methods allows testing of a result (triangulation) Theoretical: Sociology can predict how groups of people will react The proposal of patterns is something that can be tested Cumulative Both the evolution of theories and collection of data is cumulative in sociology Theories change and become more complex over time Is Sociology Science?

Modern social research, and indeed the formal academic discipline of sociology, began with the work of Émile Durkheim (1858–1917) : 

Durkheim's seminal monograph, Suicide (1897), a case study of suicide rates amongst Catholic andProtestant populations, distinguished sociological analysis from psychology or philosophy. By carefully examining suicide statistics in different police districts, he attempted to demonstrate that Catholic communities have a lower suicide rate than that of Protestants, something he attributed to social causes. He developed the notion of objective suis generis "social facts" to delineate a unique empirical object for the science of sociology to study. Through such studies he posited that sociology would be able to determine whether any given society is 'healthy' or 'pathological', & seek social reform. For Durkheim, sociology could be described as the "science of institutions, their genesis & their functioning". Modern social research, and indeed the formal academic discipline of sociology, began with the work of Émile Durkheim (1858–1917)

Qualitative Researchers study “things” ie-people and their thoughts in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them. : 

Qualitative research involves the studied use and collection of a variety of empirical materials - case study, personal experience, introspective, life story, interview, observational, historical, interactional, and visual texts-that describe routine and problematic moments and meanings in Individuals lives. Qualitative Researchers study “things” ie-people and their thoughts in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them.

“The Big March: Migratory Flows After the Partition of India” : 

Researcher used the 1931 and 1951 censuses to estimate the net outflow and inflow from each district. The inflows were easily measured through the 1951 censuses in India and Pakistan, in which census responders were explicitly asked whether they were a “muhajir” or a “displaced person” By comparing the outflows and the inflows, they were able to estimate the number of ‘missing persons’, those presumably killed during the migration. “The Big March: Migratory Flows After the Partition of India”

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The devastating earthquake of 2005 claimed more than 80,000 lives. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami killed about 0.225 million people.  On a broader note, this sort of ground breaking research on social issues is direly needed. Rather than speculative, ‘drawing-room’ analysis, we need more of quantitative, evidence-based research, to understand the challenges the society is facing and to debate their solutions.

Malnutrition & Infant Mortality : 

MALNUTRITION AMONG INDIAN CHILDREN CONTENTS INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF PEM ( Protein Energy Malnutrition) TYPES OF MALNUTRITION INCIDENCE OF PEM CAUSES OF PEM NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES CLASSIFICATION OF PEM EFFECTS OF MALNUTRITION CHILD MALNUTRITION IN INDIA Nutritional advice for the pregnant mothers and children and practical demonstrations of nutritious food with what is available locally. Malnutrition & Infant Mortality

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In the social sciences, quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships.

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Quantitative research is generally made using scientific methods, which can include: The generation of models, theories and hypotheses The development of instruments and methods for measurement Experimental control and manipulation of variables Collection of empirical data Modeling and analysis of data Evaluation of results

Slide 15: 

Quantitative research using statistical methods starts with the collection of data, based on the hypothesis or theory. Usually a big sample of data is collected - this would require verification, validation and recording before the analysis can take place.

Quantitative methods : 

Quantitative methods are research techniques that are used to gather quantitative data - information dealing with numbers and anything that is measurable. Statistics, tables and graphs, are often used to present the results of these methods. They are therefore to be distinguished from qualitative methods. Quantitative methods

Research Areas for qualitative research : 

Pure and applied social statistics and research methods Social networks Demographic and social change Elections, political parties and political behavior Relationships and relationship structures Work and employment Research Areas for qualitative research

The Research Model : 

Define the Problem: what you hope to investigate. Operationalize concepts (intelligence, love, etc.) Review the literature: what has already been done? Replication studies, build on existing knowledge. Formulate the Hypothesis: tentative statement of relationship between independent and dependent variables. Choose Research Design (cost, time, access), Collect and Analyze Conclusions and Reporting . The Research Model

Education of Girls in Kerala Vs Education of Girls in Rajasthan : 

The educational scenario in Kerala is far advanced than other states of India. The Kerala model of development owes it attributed success to the achievements in the area of education and health. Most of the changes and development in the field of education have occurred since independence. The State had pursued a liberal higher education policy from 1956 through mid eighties in terms of quantitative expansion and access to higher education. Today, it boasts other states in terms of high literacy rate of 90.86% as against 65.38% in the national level. The percentage of girls who had never been enrolled in school dropped from more than 20 percent in 1996 to less than 4 percent in 2006: PROBE Report conducted in 7 of India’s lowest literacy states, Although there is still a long way to go, attitudes to girls’ education in the state have been changing over the past two decade Education of Girls in Kerala Vs Education of Girls in Rajasthan

UNIVERSITY SURVEY: What did our 2008 Faculty of Law, Business and Social Sciences graduates do when they completed their degree? : 

This chart shows what Law, Business and Social Sci. UG leavers were doing 6 months after graduation. 76.6% of Law, Business and Social Sciences UG leavers responded to the survey. The Others category in the chart comprises graduates temporarily or permanently unable to work or not seeking employment. UNIVERSITY SURVEY: What did our 2008 Faculty of Law, Business and Social Sciences graduates do when they completed their degree?

What did our 2008 Medical Faculty & Education Faculty graduates do when they completed their degree? : 

What did our 2008 Medical Faculty & Education Faculty graduates do when they completed their degree?

What did our 2008 Anthropology graduates & Arts Graduates do when they completed their degree? : 

What did our 2008 Anthropology graduates & Arts Graduates do when they completed their degree?

“STATUS OF WOMEN IN CONTEMPORARY INDIAN SOCIETY” : 

STATEMENT   OF PURPOSE : To critically analyze the role and status of women in the contemporary Indian society and the crimes committed against them. INTRODUCTION : Within the Indian subcontinent, there have been infinite variations of the status of women, differing according to the cultural milieu, family structures, caste, class, property right etc. we have to specify as to whether we are talking about rural women or urban women, about middle class or lower class women, about Brahmin or scheduled caste woman, about women in the Hindu society or Muslim community. All these distinctions are significant determinants of variations in her position in different groups. Status of woman is affected by certain macro-forces as economic development, political participation, and ideological overtones. A girl is expected to be docile, shy, non-aggressive, self-effacing.. “STATUS OF WOMEN IN CONTEMPORARY INDIAN SOCIETY”

Indian Child And Childhood: From The Eyes Of The Teacher : 

India is today part of the global debate on childhood and a radical ‘child-centered pedagogy’ has been presented to educators by   NCF 2005. This qualitative study explores an indigenous, teachers’ discourse on children in India, in terms of developmental beliefs and related trait(s) and Sociology of Childhood, childhood’s perception as a social group. Qualitative analysis of data obtained using clinical interviews and story-narratives revealed that, in terms of a developmental understanding, teachers paradoxically saw children as actively constructing knowledge from their environment, while being passively determined through unidirectional socialization and automatic/subconscious observational learning from their environment. As a social group, teachers gave childhood a subordinate status through processes of control, obedience and dependence. Indian Child And Childhood: From The Eyes Of The Teacher

AN EXAMPLE OF RESEARCH : Marriage, Money and Happiness : 

Research Questions Are married people happier than single people? If so, does this relationship hold up if we control for age and income? Data Source The data are from the 1998 General Social Survey N = 2832 Stratified Random Sample was used Results represent the U.S. population accurately AN EXAMPLE OF RESEARCH : Marriage, Money and Happiness

Dependent Variable & Dependent Variable : 

Dependent Variable There is only one dependent variable to be explained: overall happiness. To measure it, interviewers asked the following question: Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are very happy, pretty happy, or not too happy? Independent Variables MARITAL – Are you currently – married, divorced, separated or have you never been married? INCOME – In which of these groups did your total family income from all sources fall last year, before taxes that is? less than $22,500 $22,500 to $49,999 $50,000 plus OVER50 : Respondent’s Age is Under 50 Years or Over 50 Years Dependent Variable & Dependent Variable

Marital Status and Happiness : 

“Very Happy” = 43.5% Never Married= 18.3% Divorced/ Widowed Married= 23.2% Married people are much happier than those who are widowed or divorced, or who never married. This relationship is statistically significant at the .000 level by chi-square test. However, divorced and widowed people are likely to be older than average, and this might effect their happiness. Therefore, examine happiness for people in the same age group Marital Status and Happiness

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Marital Status and Happiness for those under 50 years of age, The results for those under 50 are very similar to those for the sample as a whole. Marriage seems to be related to happiness for younger people But perhaps this is due to income. Married people might have a larger family income which may make them happier Therefore, check to see if income is related to happiness.

Money and Happiness: : 

The data show that people with a family income above $50,000 are much happier than those with lower incomes. The causal relationships are ambiguous Marriage may have led to both a higher income and happiness. How can we test whether the happiness is due to marriage or to income? Look at happiness for married, divorced, and single people who all have high incomes. Conclusions: Even among those with a high income, married people are much happier This suggests that marriage brings both a higher family income and happiness The relationship between income and happiness may be spurious ( not genuine/false) Money and Happiness:

Conclusion : 

Conclusion

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