tourism

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Understand what tourism is and its many definitions. Learn the components of tourism and tourism management. Examine the various approaches to studying tourism. Appreciate how important this industry is to the economy of the world and of many countries. Know the benefits and costs of tourism. Learning Objectives Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

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Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

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Definition of Tourism Tourism may be defined as the processes, activities, and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors. Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

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WTO Definition of Tourism Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

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Visitor A “visitor” is defined as those persons who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence but outside their usual environment for a period not exceeding twelve months and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

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Classification of Travelers (1) Tourists in international technical definitions. (2) Excursionists in international technical definitions. (3) Travelers whose trips are shorter than those that qualify for travel and tourism; e.g., under 50 miles (80 km) from home. (4) Students traveling between home and school only -- other travel of students is within scope of travel and tourism. (5) All persons moving to a new place of residence including all one-way travelers, such as emigrants, immigrants, refugees, domestic migrants, and nomads. Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

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The Tourism Phenomenon:Components of tourism and tourism management Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

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Geography Psychology Source: adapted from Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Study of Tourism: Choices of Discipline and Approach. Disciplinary inputs to the tourism field Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

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In 2001 it is estimated to account for some: $3.5 trillion of Economic Activity 207 million jobs In 2011 it is estimated to account for : $7.0 trillion of Economic Activity 260 million jobs Travel and Tourism ---World’s Largest Industry Source: WTTC Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

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Travel and Tourism will continue to expand faster than the economy as a whole and faster than comparable industries. By 2011 Travel & Tourism is expected to account for: *Over twice the output at $7.0 trillion *More jobs --- 260 million employees Growth depends on enlightened government policy Travel and Tourism CanDouble in Size by 2011 Source: WTTC Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

World’s Top 5 Tourism Destinations2000 : 

World’s Top 5 Tourism Destinations2000 International Market Share Tourist Arrivals % of World Rank, (thousands) % Change Total, 2000 Country 2000 1999/00 2000 1 France 74,500 2.0 10.7 2 United States 52,700 8.7 7.5 3 Spain 48,500 3.7 6.9 4 Italy 41,200 12.8 5.9 5 China 31,200 15.5 4.5 Source: WTO Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

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World’s Top 5Tourism Earners2000 International Market Share Tourism Receipts % of World Rank, (US$ million) % Change Total, 2000 Country 2000 1999/00 2000 1 United States 83,800 11.9 17.6 2 Spain 31,000 -4.3 6.5 3 France 29,900 -5.1 6.4 4 Italy 27,700 -2.5 5.8 5 United Kingdom 19,300 -4.7 4.0 Source: WTO Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

Tourism:What it Means to the U.S. Economy : 

Tourism:What it Means to the U.S. Economy Travel spending in U.S. generated $584.4 billion in 2000. Tourism is the nation’s third largest retail industry. Tourism is the nation’s largest service export. Over 7 million Americans employed directly in the travel industry, 9 million indirectly for a total of over 16 million jobs. Tourism is the first, second, or third largest employer in 29 states. Tourism provides more than 684,000 executive level positions in each year. Travel industry provides a disproportionate number of jobs for the traditionally disadvantaged. Source: Travel Industry Association of America (TIA) Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

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Can be developed with local products and resources Diversifies the economy Tends to be compatible with other economic activities Spreads development High multiplier impact Increases governmental revenues Benefits of Tourism - Economic Provides employment opportunities Generates foreign exchange Increases Incomes Increases GNP Can be built on existing infrastructure Develops an infrastructure that will also help stimulate local commerce and industry Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

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Broadens educational and cultural horizons Improves quality of life - higher incomes and improved standards of living Justifies environmental protection and improvement Provides tourist andrecreational facilitiesthat may be used bya local population Benefits of Tourism - Social Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

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Reinforces preservation of heritage and tradition Visitor interest in local culture provides employment for artists, musicians and other performing artists enhancing cultural heritage Breaks down language barriers, sociocultural barriers, class barriers, racial barriers, political barriers, and religious barriers Creates a favorable worldwide image for a destination Promotes a global community Promotes international understanding and peace Benefits of Tourism - Cultural Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

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Develops excess demand Results in high leakage Creates difficulties of seasonality Causes inflation Can result in unbalanced economic development Increases vulnerability to economic and political changes Disadvantages of Tourism - Economic Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

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Creates social problems Degrades the natural physical environment and creates pollution Degrades the cultural environment Threatens family structure Commercializes culture, religion, and the arts Creates misunderstanding Creates conflicts in the host society Contributes to disease, economic fluctuation, and transportation problems Disadvantages of Tourism - Social Part One: Tourism Overview