Managing Organizational Change

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Managing Organizational Change and Learning:

Managing Organizational Change and Learning

Managing Organizational Change and Learning:

Managing Organizational Change and Learning A Proactive Behavior

Why is it Important to Adapt to Change?:

Why is it Important to Adapt to Change? Individuals, teams, or organizations that do not adapt to change in timely ways are unlikely to survive.

Adapting to Change:

Adapting to Change Individuals, teams and organizations that recognize the inevitability of change, learn to adapt to it, and attempt to manage it, will be the most successful.

What is Change?:

What is Change? Coping process of moving from a unsatisfactory present state to a desired state

Reacting to Change:

Reacting to Change Unplanned “Fire fighting”

Learning Principles and Change:

Principles of learning Unfreezing old learning Movement to new learning Refreezing the learned behavior Learning Principles and Change

Change Agents:

An intervener who… Brings a different perspective to a situation Challenges the status quo (position) The success of a change program rests heavily on… The relationship between the change agent and key decision makers Change Agents

Types of Change Agents:

Types of Change Agents External-Internal Internal External

Why People Resist Change:

Why People Resist Change Rational or irrational reaction to Uncertainty Actual, perceived, or imaged threats Parochial self-interest Misunderstanding Lack of trust Different assessments Low tolerance for change

Reducing Resistance to Change:

Reducing Resistance to Change Employee resistance can be reduced by utilizing: Education and communication Participation and involvement Facilitation and support Negotiation and agreement Manipulation and cooptation Explicit and implicit coercion

Model for Managing Change:

Model for Managing Change Forces for change Environmental Market Technology Resources Internal Behavior Processes Performance outcomes Organizational Group Individual Diagnosis of the problem Information Participation Change agent Selection of appropriate intervention Structural Skill/attitude Behavioral Limiting Conditions Leadership climate Formal organization Organization culture Implementation Timing Scope Experimentation Evaluation of method Feedback Adjustment Revision Reinforcement Affect Encourage Leads to Followed by Provision for Feedback Feedback 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Forces for Change:

Forces for Change Environmental Forces Economic Technological Social/political Internal Forces Process problems Behavioral problems

Diagnosis of a Problem:

Diagnosis of a Problem Change agents facilitate a diagnosis Gathering, interpreting, and presenting data There is no formula for accurate diagnosis Questions that can point to the right direction: What is the problem, as distinct from the symptoms of the problem? What must be changed to resolve the problem? What outcomes (objectives) are expected from the change? How will those outcomes be measured?

Data Collection Process & Techniques:

Data Collection Process & Techniques Processes and techniques… Questionnaire Direct observation Interviews Workshops Examination of documents and records


Intervention Intervention – A specific action or program undertaken to focus the change process on particular targets.

Depth & Approach of Change:

Depth & Approach of Change Depth of intended change Scope and intensity of organizational change efforts Approaches to achieving change Structural Behavioral Technological

Alternative Change Techniques:

Alternative Change Techniques Structural Change Change the nature of jobs Change the bases for departmentalization Change line-staff relationships Behavioral Change Team building Diversity training Technological Change New ways of transforming resources into products or services

Technological Change Techniques:

Technological Change Techniques Flexible manufacturing systems Automation Robotics Wireless Connectivity

High-Tech Disappointments:

High-Tech Disappointments High-tech changes often disappoint Structural changes not implemented Behavioral changes lacking Employee training Compensation Management style

Anticipated Outcomes of Change:

Anticipated Outcomes of Change Initiator of change: internal and/or external change agent Structural changes Behavioral changes Technological changes Robotics Automation Wireless connectivity Team building Cross-cultural understanding Managing diversity Work simplification Job enrichment Job description Departmentalization Communications Attitudes Self-awareness Problem solving Efficiency Output Quality Satisfaction Morale Performance

Appreciative Inquiry:

Appreciative Inquiry A method of focusing on and bringing about positive change Uses metaphors and narratives to strengthen an individual or organization’s ability to anticipate , seize , or initiate positive potential A positive approach to change that completely lets go of problem-based management Individual engagement to bring about creative solutions

Framework for Appreciative Inquiry:

Framework for Appreciative Inquiry 1 Discovery Phase Identifying everything that is the best of “what is” 2 Dreaming Phase Thinking about what the “possibilities” are 3 Designing Phase Discussing and analyzing what “should” be 4 Delivery Phase Creating clear objectives of “what is going to be”

Trends in Organizational Change:

Trends in Organizational Change Downsizing Empowerment Virtual Jobs Flextime

Limiting Conditions:

Limiting Conditions Selection of a change technique… Based on diagnosis of the problem Tempered by the conditions at the time an intervention is to occur Conditions to consider… Leadership climate The formal organization The organizational culture Resistance to change

Implementing & Evaluating Change:

Implementing & Evaluating Change The implementation of proposed change has two dimensions: Timing — when to make the change Scope — how much change to make Feedback should be solicited during the monitoring phase It helps determine the success of the change

Ethical Issues of Change:

Ethical Issues of Change Change itself is not unethical It creates opportunities for unethical behavior Ethical choices are always guided by the underlying values of management Employ and empower managers who create and foster a culture that encourages ethical behavior

Guidelines for Managing Change:

Guidelines for Managing Change Everyone involved must have… High and visible commitment to the effort Advance information that lets them know what is to happen and why they are being asked to do what they are to do The change effort… Must connect to other parts of the organization, especially evaluation and reward systems Should be directed by line managers and assisted by a change agent, if necessary

Guidelines for Managing Change:

Guidelines for Managing Change For a change to be effective… The effort must be based on good diagnosis and consistent with the conditions in the organization Management must remain committed to the effort through all its steps Evaluation is essential and must consist of more than asking people how they felt about the effort People must see the connection between the effort and the organization’s mission and goals Change agents, if used, must be competent and perceived as such

The Learning Organization:

The Learning Organization Learning is a key ingredient in… Growing Becoming more effective Becoming more socially responsible Sustaining the business’s value proposition

A Learning Perspective:

A Learning Perspective Scanning the environment Performance issues Metrics Experimental philosophy Transparency Education Operational variety Multiple advocates Engaged leaders and role models

Manager’s Role in Learning Organizations:

Manager’s Role in Learning Organizations Managers who also lead can create or contribute to the learning environment Build a commitment to learning Work to generate ideas with impact Work to generalize ideas with impact

Manager’s Role in Learning Organizations:

Manager’s Role in Learning Organizations Sustaining a learning organization requires A commitment to learning Generation & implementation of creative ideas Building cohesive teams Fostering collaboration and support What is learned must be implemented in order to execute a change Managers must be decisive and action oriented

Converting a Traditional Organization:

Converting a Traditional Organization Change the way information and experienced are used Change the way information is sought, used, stored and reviewed Information must be shared, available, and transparent Actively work to make information, new ideas, and creativity part of the culture

Planned Change:

Planned Change Results from deliberate attempts by managers to improve organizational operations

PowerPoint Presentation:

Unfreeze Change Refreeze Three Phases of Planned Change


Unfreezing Help people accept that change is needed because the existing situation is not adequate


Changing Involves rearranging of current work norms and relationships to meet new needs


Refreezing Reinforces the changes made so that the new ways of behaving become stabilized

Steps in the Planned Change Process:

Steps in the Planned Change Process Recognize the need for change Diagnose and plan change Manage the transition Measure results Maintain change

Model of Planned Change :

Model of Planned Change By Permission: Porres & Silvers (1991)

Model of Planned Change – 2 :

Model of Planned Change – 2 Porras & Silvers Model : Change intervention (two categories): Organization transformation Organization development Organizational target variables: Vision (beliefs, purpose, mission) Work setting (organizing arrangements, social factors, technology, physical setting)

Model of Planned Change – 3 :

Model of Planned Change – 3 Porras & Silvers Model : Individual organizational member: Cognitive change (four types): Alpha change Beta change Gamma (A) change Gamma (B) change Behavior change

Model of Planned Change – 4 :

Model of Planned Change – 4 Porras & Silvers Model : Organizational outcomes: Improved organizational performance Enhanced individual development

Managing the Planned Change Process:

Managing the Planned Change Process Improving the organization’s ability to cope with unplanned changes that are thrust upon it Modifying employee’s attitudes and behaviors to make them more effective contributors to the organization’s goals

Initiating the Planned Change Process:

Initiating the Planned Change Process Recognize the need for change Diagnose and plan change Formulate Goals Determine stakeholders’ needs Examine driving and restraining forces

Force-Field Analysis:

Force-Field Analysis Process of analyzing the forces that drive change and the forces that restrain it

Driving Forces :

Driving Forces Factors that push toward the new, more desirable status quo

Restraining Forces :

Restraining Forces Factors that exert pressure to continue past behaviors or to resist new actions

Managing the Planned Change Process:

Managing the Planned Change Process Consider contingencies to determine the best interventions Manage the transition Measure results Maintain change

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