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Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: WASTAGE OF WATER Slide 2: Made by: ARPIT BINWANI (10131) ISHAN ARORA (10107) Supported by: NIKHIL CHANDNANI (10138) HIMANSHU MORWAL (10126) GAURAV NAGORI (10109) Wastage of water : Wastage of water Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. It comprises liquid waste discharged by domestic residences, commercial properties, industry, and agriculture and can encompass wide range of potential contaminants and concentrations. In the most common usage, it refers to municipal wastewater contains a broad spectrum of contaminants resulting from the mixing of wastewaters from different sources. Sewage is correctly the subset of wastewater that is contaminated with feces or urine, but is often used to mean any waste water. "Sewage" includes domestic, municipal, or industrial liquid waste products disposed of, usually via a pipe or sewer or similar structure, sometimes in a cesspool emptier. The physical infrastructure, including pipes, pumps, screens, channels etc. used to convey sewage from its origin to the point of eventual treatment or disposal is termed sewerage. Origin : Origin Human waste (faces, used toilet paper or wipes, urine, or other bodily fluids), also known as black water, usually from lavatories Cesspit leakage Septic tank discharge Sewage treatment plant discharge Washing water (personal, clothes, floors, dishes, etc.), also known as grey water or sullage Rainfall collected on roofs, yards, hard-standings, etc. (generally clean with traces of oils and fuel) Groundwater infiltrated into sewage Surplus manufactured liquids from domestic sources (drinks, cooking oil, pesticides, lubricating oil, paint, cleaning liquids, etc.) Slide 5: Urban rainfall runoff from roads, car parks, roofs, sidewalks, or pavements (contains oils, animal faces, litter, fuel or rubber residues, metals from vehicle exhausts, etc.) Seawater ingress (high volumes of salt and micro-biota) Direct ingress of river water (high volumes of micro-biota) Direct ingress of manmade liquids (illegal disposal of pesticides, used oils, etc.) Highway drainage (oil, de-icing agents, rubber residues) Storm drains (almost anything, including cars, shopping trolleys, trees, cattle, etc.) Black water (surface water contaminated by sewage) Industrial waste industrial site drainage (silt, sand, alkali, oil, chemical residues) Industrial cooling waters (biocides, heat, slimes, silt) Slide 6: Industrial process waters Organic or bio-degradable waste, including waste from abattoirs, creameries, and ice cream manufacture Organic or non bio-degradable/difficult-to-treat waste (pharmaceutical or manufacturing) extreme pH waste (from acid/alkali manufacturing, metal plating) Toxic waste (metal plating, cyanide production, pesticide manufacturing, etc.) Solids and Emulsions (paper manufacturing, foodstuffs, lubricating and hydraulic oil manufacturing, etc.) agricultural drainage, direct and diffuse Wastewater constituents : Wastewater constituents Slide 8: Water ( > 95%) which is often added during flushing to carry waste down a drain Pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, prions and parasitic worms; Non-pathogenic bacteria (> 100,000 / ml for sewage); Organic particles such as faeces, hairs, food, vomit, paper fibers, plant material, humus, etc.; Soluble organic material such as urea, fruit sugars, soluble proteins, drugs, pharmaceuticals, etc.; Inorganic particles such as sand, grit, metal particles, ceramics, etc.; Soluble inorganic material such as ammonia, road-salt, sea-salt, cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, thiocyanates, thiosulphates, etc.; Animals such as protozoa, insects, arthropods, small fish, etc.; Macro-solids such as sanitary napkins, nappies/diapers, condoms, needles, children's toys, dead animals or plants, body parts, etc.; Gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, etc.; Emulsions such as paints, adhesives, mayonnaise, hair colorants, emulsified oils, etc.; Toxins such as pesticides, poisons, herbicides, etc Wastewater Quality Indicators : Wastewater Quality Indicators Any oxidizable material present in a natural waterway or in an industrial wastewater will be oxidized both by biochemical (bacterial) or chemical processes. The result is that the oxygen content of the water will be decreased. Basically, the reaction for biochemical oxidation may be written as: Oxidizable material + bacteria + nutrient + O2 → CO2 + H2O + oxidized inorganic such as NO3 or SO4 Oxygen consumption by reducing chemicals such as sulfides and nitrites is typified as follows: S + 2 O2 → SO4 NO2 + ½ O2 → NO3 Slide 10: The so-called 5-day BOD measures the amount of oxygen consumed by biochemical oxidation of waste contaminants in a 5-day period. The total amount of oxygen consumed when the biochemical reaction is allowed to proceed to completion is called the Ultimate BOD. The Ultimate BOD is too time consuming, so the 5-day BOD has almost universally been adopted as a measure of relative pollution effect. There are also many different COD tests of which the 4-hour COD is probably the most common. There is no generalized correlation between the 5-day BOD and the ultimate BOD. Similarly there is no generalized correlation between BOD and COD. It is possible to develop such correlations for a specific waste contaminants in a specific waste water stream but such correlations cannot be generalized for use with any other waste contaminants or waste water streams. This is because the composition of any waste water stream is different. As an example and effluent consisting of a solution of simple sugars that might discharge from a confectionery factory is likely to have organic components that degrade very quickly. In such a case the 5 day BOD and the ultimate BOD would be very similar .There would be very little organic material left after 5 days. Sewage disposal : Sewage disposal In some urban areas, sewage is carried separately in sanitary sewers and runoff from streets is carried in storm drains. Access to either of these is typically through a manhole. During high precipitation periods a sanitary sewer overflow can occur, causing potential public health and ecological damage. Sewage may drain directly into major watersheds with minimal or no treatment. When untreated, sewage can have serious impacts on the quality of an environment and on the health of people. Pathogens can cause a variety of illnesses. Some chemicals pose risks even at very low concentrations and can remain a threat for long periods of time because of bioaccumulation in animal or human tissue. Treatment : Treatment Slide 13: There are numerous processes that can be used to clean up waste waters depending on the type and extent of contamination. Most wastewater is treated in industrial-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which may include physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. However, the use of septic tanks and other On- Site Sewage Facilities (OSSF) is widespread in rural areas, serving up to one quarter of the homes in the U.S. The most important aerobic treatment system is the activated sludge process, based on the maintenance and recirculation of a complex biomass composed by micro-organisms able to absorb and adsorb the organic matter carried in the wastewater. Anaerobic processes are widely applied in the treatment of industrial wastewaters and biological sludge. Some wastewater may be highly treated and reused as reclaimed water. Slide 14: Most petroleum refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants have onsite facilities to treat their wastewaters so that the pollutant concentrations in the treated wastewater comply with the local and/or national regulations regarding disposal of wastewaters into community treatment plants or into rivers, lakes or oceans. Other Industrial processes that produce a lot of waste-waters such as paper and pulp production has created environmental concern leading to development of processes to recycle water use within plants before they have to be cleaned and disposed of. REUSE : REUSE Treated wastewater can be reused as drinking water, in industry (cooling towers), in artificial recharge of aquifers, in agriculture (70% of Israel's irrigated agriculture is based on highly purified waste water) and in the rehabilitation of natural ecosystems (Florida's Everglades). Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, following the conclusions of the USDOE´s Aquatic Species Program, use wastewater for breeding algae. The wastewater from domestic and industrial sources contain rich organic compounds, which accelerate the growth of algae. Agricultural applications : Agricultural applications For crop irrigation, optimal water efficiency means minimizing losses due to evaporation, runoff or subsurface drainage. An evaporation pan can be used to determine how much water is required to irrigate the land. Flood irrigation, the oldest and most common type, is often very uneven in distribution, as parts of a field may receive excess water in order to deliver sufficient quantities to other parts. Overhead irrigation, using center-pivot or lateral-moving sprinklers, gives a much more equal and controlled distribution pattern. Drip irrigation is the most expensive and least-used type, but offers the best results in delivering water to plant roots with minimal losses Slide 18: As changing irrigation systems can be a costly undertaking, conservation efforts often concentrate on maximizing the efficiency of the existing system. This may include chiseling compacted soils, creating furrow dikes to prevent runoff, and using soil moisture and rainfall sensors to optimize irrigation schedules. Infiltration basins, also called recharge pits, capture rainwater and recharge ground water supplies. Use of these management practices reduces soil erosion caused by storm water runoff and improves water quality in nearby surface waters. Minimum Water Network Target and Design : Minimum Water Network Target and Design The Cost effective minimum water network is a holistic framework/guide for water conservation that helps in determining the minimum amount of freshwater and wastewater target for an industrial or urban system based on the water management hierarchy i.e. it considers all conceivable methods to save water. The technique ensure that the designer desired payback period is satisfied using Systematic Hierarchical Approach for Resilient Process Screening (SHARPS) technique. Another established technique for maximum water recovery is the water pinch analysis technique. However, this technique only focuses on maximizing freshwater and wastewater reduction via reuse and regeneration Commercial applications : Commercial applications Many water-saving devices (such as low-flush toilets) that are useful in homes can also be useful for business water saving. Other water-saving technology for businesses includes: Waterless urinals Waterless car washes Infrared or foot-operated faucets, which can save water by using short bursts of water for rinsing in a kitchen or bathroom Pressurized water brooms, which can be used instead of a hose to clean sidewalks One of the method of water conservation is rain water harvesting Slide 22: survey Slide 23: Due to lack of water people standing in a queue. Slide 24: “Water is life” but here water is of no value. Slide 26: Due to lack of ball (a device used to control overflowing of tank) water is overflowing. Slide 28: We know that water is important but some people do not preserve it. Slide 30: Water is being polluted. Slide 32: We did our survey at Pump House, Jawahar Nagar related to the scarcity of the water and we found that they people are facing scarcity of water due to lack of water resources and we people are wasting the water very carelessly. They people face problem everyday by filling the water from the sources distant apart. We people get water easily by just opening our taps that’s why we can’t understand the need of water. One man go 5 kms apart to fill the water by taking 5 vessels. So just think of them and save water by closing our taps, using needy water etc. Slide 33: SO PLEASE SAVE WATER FOR FUTURE USE. BY FOLLOWING THESE STEPS: : BY FOLLOWING THESE STEPS: Slide 35: END Slide 36: Thank You You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.