HIV(AIDS)

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By Siva Sankari.R : 

WHAT IS AIDS? WHAT IS AIDS? By Siva Sankari.R

AIDS : 

AIDS AQUIRED IMMUNO DEFICIENCY SYNDROME

IT WAS IDENTIFIED IN DECEMBER 1981.THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES HAVE ESTABLISHED THAT IT IS A COMMUNICABLE DISSEASE TRANSMITTED THROUGH SEXUAL CONTACT OR BLOOD & BLOOD PRODUCT : 

IT WAS IDENTIFIED IN DECEMBER 1981.THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES HAVE ESTABLISHED THAT IT IS A COMMUNICABLE DISSEASE TRANSMITTED THROUGH SEXUAL CONTACT OR BLOOD & BLOOD PRODUCT

IN THE YEAR 1983 LUE MONTAGNIER AT PASTERU INSTITUTE PARIS & GALLO AT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH USA ISOLATED THE VIRUS THAT CAUSED AIDS. : 

IN THE YEAR 1983 LUE MONTAGNIER AT PASTERU INSTITUTE PARIS & GALLO AT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH USA ISOLATED THE VIRUS THAT CAUSED AIDS.

HOW IT IS CAUSED? : 

HOW IT IS CAUSED? HUMAN DIFICIANCY VIRUS IT IS CAUSED BY "HIV"

HIV is a virus. Viruses infect the cells that make up the human body and replicate (make new copies of themselves) within those cells. A virus can also damage human cells, which is one of the things that can make a person ill.HIV can be passed from one person to another. Someone can become infected with HIV through contact with the bodily fluids of someone who already has HIV.HIV stands for the 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus'. Someone who is diagnosed as infected with HIV is said to be 'HIV+' or 'HIV positive'. : 

HIV is a virus. Viruses infect the cells that make up the human body and replicate (make new copies of themselves) within those cells. A virus can also damage human cells, which is one of the things that can make a person ill.HIV can be passed from one person to another. Someone can become infected with HIV through contact with the bodily fluids of someone who already has HIV.HIV stands for the 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus'. Someone who is diagnosed as infected with HIV is said to be 'HIV+' or 'HIV positive'. WHATIS HIV?

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How is HIV passed on? HIV is found in the blood and the sexual fluids of an infected person, and in the breast milk of an infected woman. HIV transmission occurs when a sufficient quantity of these fluids get into someone else's bloodstream Unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected person Contact with an infected person's blood From mother to child Use of infected blood products Injecting drugs

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India is one of the largest and most populated countries in the world, with over one billion inhabitants. Of this number, it's estimated that around 2.4 million Indians are currently living with HIV. HIV emerged later in India than it did in many other countries. Infection rates soared throughout the 1990s, and today the epidemic affects all sectors of Indian society, not just the groups – such as sex workers and truck drivers – with which it was originally associated.

HISTORY OF HIV AIDS IN INDIA : 

HISTORY OF HIV AIDS IN INDIA At the beginning of 1986, despite over 20,000 reported AIDS cases worldwide India had no reported cases of HIV or AIDS. There was recognition, though, that this would not be the case for long . Later in the year, India’s first cases of HIV were diagnosed among sex workers in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. It was noted that contact with foreign visitors had played a role in initial infections among sex workers, and as HIV screening centres were set up across the country there were calls for visitors to be screened for HIV.

In 1987 a National AIDS Control Programme was launched to co-ordinate national responses. Its activities covered surveillance, blood screening, and health education. By the end of 1987, out of 52,907 who had been tested, around 135 people were found to be HIV positive and 14 had AIDS. Most of these initial cases had occurred through heterosexual sex, but at the end of the 1980s a rapid spread of HIV was observed among injecting drug users in Manipur, Mizoram and Nagaland - three north-eastern states of India bordering Myanmar (Burma). : 

In 1987 a National AIDS Control Programme was launched to co-ordinate national responses. Its activities covered surveillance, blood screening, and health education. By the end of 1987, out of 52,907 who had been tested, around 135 people were found to be HIV positive and 14 had AIDS. Most of these initial cases had occurred through heterosexual sex, but at the end of the 1980s a rapid spread of HIV was observed among injecting drug users in Manipur, Mizoram and Nagaland - three north-eastern states of India bordering Myanmar (Burma).

At the beginning of the 1990s, as infection rates continued to rise, responses were strengthened. : 

At the beginning of the 1990s, as infection rates continued to rise, responses were strengthened. In 1992 the government set up control programmes like NACO STATAGIC PLANS NATIONAL AIDS PREVENTION & CONTROL DAY

In 1990 there had been tens of thousands of people living with HIV in India; by 2000 this had risen to millions. : 

In 1990 there had been tens of thousands of people living with HIV in India; by 2000 this had risen to millions. A human daisy chain on World Aids Day in India, December 2004.

Current estimatesIn 2006 UNAIDS estimated that there were 5.6 million people living with HIV in India, which indicated that there were more people with HIV in India than in any other country in the world.In 2007, following the first survey of HIV among the general population, UNAIDS and NACO agreed on a new estimate – between 2 million and 3.6 million people living with HIV. The figure was confirmed to be 2.4 million in 2008. This puts India behind South Africa and Nigeria in numbers living with HIV. : 

Current estimatesIn 2006 UNAIDS estimated that there were 5.6 million people living with HIV in India, which indicated that there were more people with HIV in India than in any other country in the world.In 2007, following the first survey of HIV among the general population, UNAIDS and NACO agreed on a new estimate – between 2 million and 3.6 million people living with HIV. The figure was confirmed to be 2.4 million in 2008. This puts India behind South Africa and Nigeria in numbers living with HIV.

In terms of AIDS cases, the most recent estimate comes from August 2006, at which stage the total number of AIDS cases reported to NACO was 124,995. Of this number, 29% were women, and 36% were under the age of 30. These figures are not accurate reflections of the actual situation though, as large numbers of AIDS cases go unreported. : 

In terms of AIDS cases, the most recent estimate comes from August 2006, at which stage the total number of AIDS cases reported to NACO was 124,995. Of this number, 29% were women, and 36% were under the age of 30. These figures are not accurate reflections of the actual situation though, as large numbers of AIDS cases go unreported.

Overall, around 0.3% of India’s population is living with HIV. While this may seem a low rate, India’s population is vast, so the actual number of people living with HIV is remarkably high. There are so many people living in India that a mere 0.1% increase in HIV prevalence would increase the estimated number of people living with HIV by over half a million. : 

Overall, around 0.3% of India’s population is living with HIV. While this may seem a low rate, India’s population is vast, so the actual number of people living with HIV is remarkably high. There are so many people living in India that a mere 0.1% increase in HIV prevalence would increase the estimated number of people living with HIV by over half a million.

HIV situation in different states : 

HIV situation in different states

The HIV prevalence data for most states is established through testing pregnant women at antenatal clinics. While this means that the data are only directly relevant to sexually active women, they still provide a reasonable indication as to the overall HIV prevalence of each area. Data for six states are also available from a survey of the general population. The following states have recorded the highest levels of HIV prevalence at antenatal and sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics over recent years. : 

The HIV prevalence data for most states is established through testing pregnant women at antenatal clinics. While this means that the data are only directly relevant to sexually active women, they still provide a reasonable indication as to the overall HIV prevalence of each area. Data for six states are also available from a survey of the general population. The following states have recorded the highest levels of HIV prevalence at antenatal and sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics over recent years.

Andhra PradeshAndhra Pradesh in the southeast of the country has a total population of around 76 million, of whom 6 million live in or around the city of Hyderabad. The HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics was 1.26% in 2006 - higher than in any other state - while the general population prevalence was 0.97% in 2005-2006. The vast majority of infections in Andhra Pradesh are believed to result from sexual transmission. HIV prevalence at STD clinics was 24.4% in 2006 : 

Andhra PradeshAndhra Pradesh in the southeast of the country has a total population of around 76 million, of whom 6 million live in or around the city of Hyderabad. The HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics was 1.26% in 2006 - higher than in any other state - while the general population prevalence was 0.97% in 2005-2006. The vast majority of infections in Andhra Pradesh are believed to result from sexual transmission. HIV prevalence at STD clinics was 24.4% in 2006

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Goa Goa is a very small state in the southwest of India, and is best known as a tourist destination. Tourism is so prominent that the number of tourists almost equals the resident population, which is about 1.3 million. The HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics was found to be 0.50% in 2006. Prevalence at STD clinics was 8.6% in 2006, indicating that Goa has a serious epidemic of HIV among sexually active people.

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Karnataka Karnataka - a diverse state in the southwest of India - has a population of around 53 million. In Karnataka the average HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics has exceeded 1% in all recent years. Among the general population, 0.69% were found to be infected in 2005-2006. Districts with the highest prevalence tend to be located in and around Bangalore in the southern part of the state, or in northern Karnataka's "devadasi belt". Devadasi women are a group of women who have historically been dedicated to the service of gods. These days, this has evolved into sanctioned prostitution, and as a result many women from this part of the country are supplied to the sex trade in big cities such as Mumbai. The average HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Karnataka was 8.64% in 2006, and 19.20% of men who have sex with men were found to be infected.

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Maharashtra Mumbai (Bombay) is the capital city of Maharashtra state and is the most populous city in India, with around 20 million inhabitants. Maharashtra is a very large state of three hundred thousand square kilometres, with a total population of around 97 million. The HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics in Maharashtra was 0.75% in 2006, and surveys of female sex workers have found around 20% to be infected. Similarly high rates are found among injecting drug users and men who have sex with men. The 2005-2006 survey found an infection rate of 0.62% in the general population of Maharashtra. This state is home to around one in five of all people living with HIV in India.

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Tamil Nadu When surveillance systems in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu, home to some 62 million people, showed that HIV infection rates among pregnant women were rising - tripling to 1.25% between 1995 and 1997 - the State Government acted decisively. Funding for the Tamil Nadu State AIDS Control Society (TANSACS), which had been set up in 1994, was significantly increasedAlong with non-governmental organisations and other partners, TANSACS developed an active AIDS prevention campaign. This included hiring a leading international advertising agency to promote condom use for risky sex in a humorous way, without offending the many people who do not engage in risky

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The campaign also attacked the ignorance and stigma associated with HIV infection. The HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics in Tamil Nadu was 0.25% in 2006, though several districts still have much higher rates. The general population survey of 2005-2006 found a rate of 0.34% across the state. Prevalence among injecting drug users was 24.20% in 2006 - the highest of all states and union territories.

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Manipur Manipur is a small state of some 2.2 million people in the northeast of India. The nearness of Manipur to Myanmar (Burma), and therefore to the Golden Triangle drug trail, has made it a major transit route for drug smuggling, with drugs easily available. HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is around 20%, and the virus is no longer confined to this group, but has spread further to the female sexual partners of drug users and their children. The HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics in Manipur has exceeded 1% in all recent years. The 2005-2006 survey found that 1.13% of the general population was infected - the highest of all states surveyed.

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Mizoram The small northeastern state of Mizoram has fewer than a million inhabitants. In 1998, an HIV epidemic took off quickly among the state's male injecting drug users, with some drug clinics registering HIV rates of more than 70% among their patients. In recent years the average prevalence among this group has been much lower, at around 3-7%. HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics was 1% in 2006.

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Nagaland Nagaland is another small northeastern state, with a population of two million, where injecting drug use has again been the driving force behind the spread of HIV. In 2006, the HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics was 0.93%, and the rate among female sex workers was 16.40%.

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HIV prevention Educating people about HIV/AIDS and how it can be prevented is complicated in India, as a number of major languages and hundreds of different dialects are spoken within its population. This means that, although some HIV/AIDS prevention and education can be done at the national level, many of the efforts are best carried out at the state and local level.

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Each state has its own AIDS Prevention and Control Society, which carries out local initiatives with guidance from NACO. Under the second stage of the government’s National AIDS Control Programme, which finished in March 2006, state AIDS control societies were granted funding for youth campaigns, blood safety checks, and HIV testing among other things. Various public platforms were used to raise awareness of the epidemic - concerts, radio dramas, a voluntary blood donation day and TV spots with a popular Indian film-star. Messages were also conveyed to young people through schools.

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Teachers and peer educators were trained to teach about the subject, and students were educated through active learning sessions, including debates and role-playing.

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Treatment for people living with HIV HAART – a form of treatment involving antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), which significantly delays the progression from HIV to AIDS – has been available in richer countries since 1996. Unfortunately, as in many poorer countries, access to this treatment is severely limited in India, with only about 95,000 people (less than 15% of those in need) receiving ARVs in India by the end of 2006. Some people manage to access the drugs through private health facilities, which dominate India’s healthcare sector, but the vast majority of people cannot afford to buy treatment privately.

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THANK YOU