PLASTIC CONCRETE

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GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING SALEM-11 RECENT ADVANCEMENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING PLASTIC MIXED CONCRETE FOR COMPRESSION MEMBERS : 

GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING SALEM-11 RECENT ADVANCEMENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING PLASTIC MIXED CONCRETE FOR COMPRESSION MEMBERS Presented by, H.sheik dawood M.Peer Mohammed saheer

CONTENT : 

CONTENT Abstract Introduction Experimental program Materials Concrete Mixing, Placing and Curing Optimum Mix Percentage of Plastics Experimental Investigation Discussion of test results Load – Deflection Behavior Behavior and Mode of failure Conclusion

ABSTRACT : 

ABSTRACT Nowadays one of the major problems in construction industries is insufficient and unavailability of construction materials, on the other side the main environmental problem is the disposal of the waste plastics. In this experimental study, an attempt has been made to use the plastics in concrete and studies have been conducted to focus on the behavior of flexural and compression members under various proportions of plastics. Four types of plastics namely Polythene Sheets, Raw Plastics, Road Waste and Plastics Straw were selected and mixed with concrete in various proportions (0.1 % to 2%). The specimens R.C columns were casted and tested for its flexural and compression strength respectively. Among four types of plastic products used, polythene sheet mixed except plastic straw all the other products were found to give better results in compression. The efficiency in taking compression load is 5% to 25%.

INTRODUCTION : 

INTRODUCTION The Indian concrete industry is today consuming about 400 million tones of concrete every year and it is expected, that this may reach a billion tones in less than a decade. All the materials required to produce such huge quantities of concrete, come from the earth’s crust, thus depleting its resources every year creating ecological strains. On the other hand human activities on earth produce waste plastics. The use of plastics in various places as packing materials and the products such as bottle, polythene sheet, containers packing strips etc. are increasing day by day. This results in production of plastic waste from all sort livings from industrial manufactures to domestic users.

Slide 5: 

So we are in need to search for new construction materials as well as a method to dispose the plastic waste. To find a solution to the above problems one of them can be used to solve the other. Plastics are the organic polymer materials having carbon as the common element in their make up. The polymers consist of combination of carbon with oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and other organic substances. Plastic are normally stable and not biodegradable, so, their disposal poses problems. Research works are going on in make use of plastics wastes effectively as additives in bitumen mixes for the road pavements (Lakshmipathy et.,al ,2003), (Vasudevan 2004), Repair and up gradation of reinforced concrete silos using Fiber Reinforced Plastics(FRP) (Bhedasgaonkar et.,al 2004).

Slide 6: 

A laboratory experimental study carried out to utilize waste plastics (in the form of strips) obtained from milk pouches in the pavement construction (Chandrakaran 2004), Pilot level studies using industrial PVC scrap to develop PVC board (Agarwal 2004). Reengineered plastics are used for solving the solid waste management problems to great extent. This study attempt is to give a contribution to the effective use of domestic wastes plastics in concrete in order to prevent the environmental strains caused by them, also to limit the consumption of high amount of natural resources.

Experimental program : 

Experimental program The objective of the research is to establish the behavior of plain and reinforced cement concrete in flexure and compression by addition of plastic in different percentages. Four types of plastic were selected and separately mixed with concrete in Varying percentages (0.1 % to 2 %) to study its strength characteristics under various percentages based on the studies the optimum percentages of plastic to be mixed with concrete was identified. Fig 1 Photograph Showing Various Types of Plastic Materials Used in the Investigation

Materials : 

Materials Commercially available 43 grade ordinary Portland cement were used, coarse aggregate was maximum size 20mm with a specific gravity 2.6, fineness modulus was 7.3 , sand was ordinary river sand with specific gravity 2 .6 and its fineness modulus was 3.5, Potable water was used for mixing. Four types of plastics which were thermo-plastic product were used. First one polythene sheets these are organic polymers containing carbon in addition to hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen.

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Thickness of the polythene sheet used was 250 micron, second one road waste these are nothing but the waste plastics found on the road side, which were collected and heated, after heating the products were cooled and the result product was shredded . The shredded plastic products were selected to mix along with concrete. The third type of plastic was raw plastic, these are the raw materials used for manufacturing the plastic straw and fourth one was plastic straw . These are the tubular plastic products used in day to day life.

Slide 10: 

Table.1 Properties of HDPE

Fig 2 Photograph Showing the Arrangement of Polythene Sheet in Cube Mould Fig 3 Photograph Showing the Arrangements of Plastic Straw in Prism Mould Concrete Mixing, Placing and Curing:

Slide 12: 

Fig 4 Photograph Showing the mixing of raw plastic with concrete Fig 5 Photograph Showing the Mixing of Road Waste with Concrete

Slide 13: 

After weighing the materials, mixing was done in an ordinary mixer to get a good uniform homogeneous concrete. This concrete was placed in layers in the mould and each layer was compacted by using the mechanical vibrator. In between each layer of concrete, the cut polythene sheets were placed and well compacted and specimens were prepared. Similarly the plastic straw was placed in concrete and the specimens were prepared. The other plastic materials like road waste and raw plastic were mixed along with concrete and poured in to the mould. The percentage of plastic mixed was varied from 0.1 % to 1.5 % by weight. Table vibrator was used to achieve the better compaction. The mould were demoulded on next day and subjected to 7 days curing.

Optimum Mix Percentage of Plastics: : 

Optimum Mix Percentage of Plastics: Cube specimens of size 150mm x 150mm , cylinder specimens of size 150mm diameter and 300 mm height and prism specimens of size 100mm x 100mm x 500 mm were prepared and allowed for curing. After 7 days curing the cube specimens were subjected to compressive load in compressive testing machine as per IS 16:1959 to find the compressive strength. The prism specimen were subjected to two point load as per IS516:1959 to find the flexural strength Fig 6 Photograph Showing the Test Set-up for Cube Compression

Table 2 Cube Compressive Strength : 

Table 2 Cube Compressive Strength

Table 3 Flexural Strength : 

Table 3 Flexural Strength

Table 4 Split Tensile Strength : 

Table 4 Split Tensile Strength

From the preliminary studies conducted, the optimum mix percentage of plastics that is to be mixed with concrete from the flexure studies are given in the table. : 

From the preliminary studies conducted, the optimum mix percentage of plastics that is to be mixed with concrete from the flexure studies are given in the table. Table 5 Optimum Mix Percentage of Plastics Table 6 Standard Deviation for Plastic Mixed Concrete

Table 7 Percentage Increase in Strength : 

Table 7 Percentage Increase in Strength

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION: : 

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION: The test specimens, reinforced concrete column of size 100 mm x 750 mm were casted with optimum percentage of plastic mix. Column reinforcement details: Longitudinal bar – 6 nos. of 6 mm dia Lateral ties – 4 mm dia plain bars @ 75 mm c/c Testing procedure: Before testing the vertical member the steel pellets were fixed to the selected demec points (11.25cm, 26.25 cm ……… with a gauge length of 15 cm) to measure the strains. Three dial gauges were fixed at 18.75 cm intervals on one side of the column... Load is applied on the specimen gradually. Strain reading and deflections were noted at predetermined load levels. The load is applied continuously till the failure of the specimen takes place. The type of failure was noted down carefully

Slide 21: 

Fig 7 Photograph Showing the Test Set-up for RC Column

Test ResultsTable 8 Compressive Strength of Reference RC Columns : 

Test ResultsTable 8 Compressive Strength of Reference RC Columns

Table 9 Compressive Strength of Polythene Sheet Mixed RC Columns : 

Table 9 Compressive Strength of Polythene Sheet Mixed RC Columns Table 10 Compressive Strength of Raw Plastics Mixed RC Columns

Table 11Compressive Strength of Road Waste Mixed RC Columns : 

Table 11Compressive Strength of Road Waste Mixed RC Columns Table 12 Compressive Strength of Plastic Straw Mixed RC Columns

DISCUSSION OF TEST RESULTS : 

DISCUSSION OF TEST RESULTS Five beams and columns with various designations were tested for its load-deformation behavior and ultimate strength characteristics. The comparison of ultimate load carrying capacity of the RC columns with various plastics is given in Table. 19 and it is graphically shown in Figure. Table.13. Ultimate Load for RC columns

Slide 26: 

Fig.8 Ultimate Load Carrying Capacity of RC Columns

Load – Deflection Behavior : 

Load – Deflection Behavior The lateral deflection of plastic mixed RC columns under various loads is shown in Figure 5. Fig 9 Load vs. Lateral Deflection for RC Columns

Slide 28: 

The lateral deflection value for the polythene sheet mixed RC columns were around 1.3mm for a maximum load of 105.5kN. The lateral deflection was found to be more or less constant above 70kN. Ordinary RC columns underwent a maximum lateral deflection of 2.25mm at the ultimate load i.e. at 100kN. The lateral deflections for polythene sheet mixed RC columns were less when compared with ordinary concrete RC columns. Road waste mixed RC columns were found to have a maximum lateral deflection of 1.2mm which was less than ordinary RC columns as well as polythene sheet mixed RC columns.

Slide 29: 

Similarly, raw plastic mixed RC columns were also found to have a maximum lateral deflection of 1.2mm at a maximum load of 108.5kN. Plastic straw mixed RC columns were found to undergo a maximum lateral deflection of 0.75mm at the ultimate load of 91.55kN. The lateral deflections of plastic straw mixed RC columns were found to be less than any other RC columns. Generally, the ordinary RC columns were found to deflect more than the plastics mixed RC columns.

Behavior and Mode of failure : 

Behavior and Mode of failure All the columns were subjected to axial compression. The columns withstand up to the ultimate load and fails by crushing of concrete. The addition of plastic waste influences the behavior and mode of failure of RC columns. The failure patterns of RC columns with various plastic materials are shown in Figure Fig 10 Photograph Showing the Tested RC Column Specimens

Conclusion : 

Conclusion From the above experimental study, the specimens R.C columns were casted and tested for its flexural and compression strength respectively. Among four types of plastic products used, polythene sheet mixed RC beam were found to give better results in flexure and except plastic straw all the other products were found to give better results in compression. The efficiency in taking flexural load is found to increase by 10% to 20% and for compression load is 5% to 25%. It is concluded that the addition of plastic waste in our regular concrete works will not affect the strength and behavior of the concrete. Moreover, the addition of the plastic waste may improve, some of the properties of the concrete.

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