Logical Fallacies

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Argumentation and Logical Fallacies : 

Argumentation and Logical Fallacies

The Argument Clinic : 

The Argument Clinic An introduction to arguments…. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=teMlv3ripSM

Slide 3: 

The goal of argumentative writing is to persuade your audience that your ideas are valid, or more valid than someone else's.

Slide 4: 

An argument can be supported by... Logic - an appeal to reasoning Authority – the author presents himself as an authority on a subject Emotions - an appeal to one’s patriotism, fears, or sympathies.

Consumers must evaluate all arguments! : 

Consumers must evaluate all arguments! Strong arguments are logical and credible. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yp_l5ntikaU …But not all arguments are strong.

Weak Arguments : 

Weak Arguments Weak arguments rely on illogical statements called fallacies.

Ask yourselves: : 

Ask yourselves: What am I supposed to believe after I watch this ad? Why do they ask me to believe it? Do I have any cause to believe that the claims (assertions) are true? Do the claims logically support the conclusion?

Ad Hominem (meaning “against the person”) : 

Ad Hominem (meaning “against the person”) attacks the person rather than the issue Examples: “Mr. Spock is not an effective second-in- command because he has ugly pointed ears.” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tdAjGXFJw3s

Red Herring ...named after a strong-smelling fish, the scent of which throws hounds off the scent of a trail. : 

Red Herring ...named after a strong-smelling fish, the scent of which throws hounds off the scent of a trail. The argument draws attention away from the main issue by focusing on a side issue or on something irrelevant.  Examples: “You can’t give me a tardy! I have an “A” in this class!” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mXmcpHgKqn4

Scare Tactic : 

Scare Tactic Creates fear in people as evidence to support a claim Example: “If the bond issue doesn’t pass, all schools in the district will close, and your children will be home all day!” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s-_LBXWMCAM

False Cause : 

False Cause Wrongly assumes a cause and effect relationship Example: “Because Mandy was homecoming queen last year, she should be homecoming queen again this year.” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bx3OThLPrOE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tbVPblOmBqk

Traditional Wisdom : 

Traditional Wisdom Uses the logic that the way things used to be is better than they are now, ignoring any problems of the past Example: “Ms. Rickey says that all electronic devices should be banned from school because it was better without them in ’65!” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f5lgq0jrZ3I

Bandwagon : 

Bandwagon Creates the impression that everybody is doing it and so should you Example: “Everyone is trying McDonald’s new “McMudbuger”; so should you!” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iN_Ml4PKdVU

Extra for discussion (and fun!) : 

Extra for discussion (and fun!) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TZb0avfQme8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2mTLO2F_ERY

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