what is atmosphere and its layers

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Prepared by {mehrabudin wakman} Contact me wakmanghfari@yahoo.com Afghanistan helmand

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Objectives of this presentation 1.Atmosphere. 2.Layers of Atmosphere. 3.Composition of the Atmosphere. 4.Solid and liquid in Atmosphere. 5.Composition and pressure of AIR.

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Atmosphere Atmosphere

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thin layer of gases enveloping Earth no well-defined upper boundary – just fewer and fewer atoms What is the Atmosphere? View of the atmosphere

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Is a mixture of different gasses. High above the planet it becomes thinner until it becomes reaches space. It is divided into five layers.

Layers of the atmosphere : 

Layers of the atmosphere There are 4 layers in the atmosphere They are the troposphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and stratosphere

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Temperature Layers from Earth’s surface Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere Not shown here – The Exosphere! Let’s learn a little about each layer!

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Explanation of the Atmosphere Layers

Troposphere : 

Troposphere This is the layer that is closest to the surface of the earth It’s elevation ranges from 0 to 10 km

Troposphere : 

Troposphere It is the first layer of Earths atmosphere, it is where all weather takes place and most clouds form.

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lowest layer; temperature decreases with altitude thinnest layer (8-16 km, avg. 11 km) where weather occurs primarily heated by Earth’s surface Troposphere

Stratosphere : 

Stratosphere This layer sits on top of the troposphere It’s elevation ranges from 10 km to around 25 km This layer contains the ozone layer, which protects us from harmful sunlight

Stratosphere : 

Stratosphere The second layer of the atmosphere. Absorbs the ultraviolet rays and solar radiation by use of the Ozone Layer.

Tropopause : 

Tropopause Between the troposphere and stratosphere.

Mesosphere : 

Mesosphere This layer is above the stratosphere It’s elevation ranges from 25 to 100 km

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Mesosphere above the stratosphere temperature decreases with altitude Meteorites and space dust burns up in this layer

Mesosphere : 

Mesosphere The third layer of the atmosphere. Is the coldest of the atmospheres and is were most meteors are burned up in.

Thermosphere : 

Thermosphere This is the highest layer of the atmosphere It’s height ranges from 100 to 400 km This is where most small meteorites burn up and is also the location in the atmosphere that the northern lights occur (aurora borealis)

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Stratosphere found above the troposphere temperature rises with elevation Ozone Layer located here upper stratosphere temperature increases with altitude due to absorption of UV (ultraviolet) radiation in the ozone layer Without the ozone layer protecting us, we could not live on the surface of the Earth!

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Thermosphere above the mesosphere temperature increases with altitude contains a special part called the ionosphere

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Composition of Atmosphere

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atmosphere is a mixture of gases, solid particles, water droplets Small changes are always happening physical processes (volcanoes), biological (plants and animals – transpiration and respiration),

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major gases: N2 and O2 lesser amounts of noble gases (Ar, Ne, Kr, Xe) plus Hydrogen (H) and Helium (He) N2: 78% volume O2: 21% volume Permanent Gases

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Water vapor (H20) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Ozone (O3) Variable Gases

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source of this gas: evaporation from Earth’s surface water cycle – moves water between oceans, land and atmosphere 75% Earth’s surface covered by some form of water ground water extremely important: clouds, absorb energy Water Vapor This satellite image shows the relative amounts of water vapor: Dark – low water, white – high water vapor

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sources: respiration, organic decay, volcanoes, natural and man-made caused fires important Greenhouse gas More Carbon dioxide means more heating of the Earth Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Very emotional issue for Americans - Are we having a bad effect on the atmosphere of the Earth???

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Ozone (O3) consists of 3 O atoms (O2 + O = O3 ) highest concentration in stratosphere shields surface from UV radiation UV radiation splits O3 molecule also contributor to smog  effects people and vegetation

Ozone Layer : 

Ozone Layer Is in the stratosphere, protects earth from harmful solar radiation.

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Solids and liquids in the atmosphere small solid particles and liquid droplets associated with human and natural processes larger particulate matter – dust, volcanoes, sea spray and combustion major component of urban smog

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Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere no clearly defined upper boundary density decreases with elevation We divide the atmosphere into layers based on: Changes in temperature

Density : 

Density Gravity pulls the atmosphere downward atmosphere made up of gases which can be compressed lower atmosphere greater density

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Ionosphere defined based on electrical characteristics within the thermosphere absorbs cosmic rays, gamma rays, X-rays, some UV rays contains ions: charged electrical particles visible light is emitted when ions are bombarded by cosmic radiation  produce aurora borealis, aurora australis

Composition of Air : 

Composition of Air There are many different types of gasses in the atmosphere They include nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide and other noble gasses The gas that is most abundant is nitrogen

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Air Pressure

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atmosphere– exerts pressure the pressure is from the mass of the atoms gravity – compresses air near surface (increase density) felt by any surface in contact with air sea level pressure = 15 lb/in2

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Air Pressure

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