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Organizational Costs Individual Costs Health Impairment Job Burnout Performance Decline Exhibit 6.1: Relationship BetweenStress and Job Performance : Exhibit 6.1: Relationship BetweenStress and Job Performance Stress in Canada : Stress in Canada The most stressful jobs : The most stressful jobs 1. US President 176.6 2. Firefighter 110.9 3. Senior executive 108.6 12. Public relations 78.5 16. Advertising account executive 74.6 20. Stockbroker 71.7 42. Advertising sales 59.9 50. College Professor 54.2 103. Market research analyst 42.1 104. Personnel 41.8 173. Accountant 31.1 245. Actuary 20.2 Some facts : Some facts 25% of white collar workers and 40% of blue collar workers had a stress-related absence in 1998 at a cost of $12 billion One in three Canadians bet 25-44 claims to be a workaholic The rate of physical and psychological assaults on women in the workplace is 19% higher in Canada than in the US. For men the rate is 400% higher. Experiencing stress : Experiencing stress STRESSORS Anticipatory, Encounter,Time, Situational REACTIONS Physiological, Psychological RESILIENCY Physical Psychological Social Exhibit 6.2: Model of the Stress Management Process : Exhibit 6.2: Model of the Stress Management Process Potential Stressors Personal Factors Family problems Financial problems Health problems Organizational Factors High stress occupation Job role Overload Under-utilization Role ambiguity Role conflict Responsibility for others Job Environment Poor working conditions Organizational politics Poor work relationships Environmental Factors Economic Uncertainty Technological Change Politics Consequences Psychological Heart Disease Ulcers Headaches Emotional Anxiety Depression Burnout Behavioral Aggression Productivity Avoidance Successful Coping High self esteem Goal accomplishment Feeling of well being Stress Management Individual Seek help Time management Change jobs Build resiliency Personality Companionship Experience Health (Exercise, diet) Relaxation Recreation Organizational Job Design Selection & Placement Training & Mentoring Team Building Employee Assistance Communicating Wellness Promotion Experienced Stress (SYMPTOM AWARENESS) Managing Stress: Objectives : Managing Stress: Objectives Becoming Aware of Negative Stress Symptoms Determining the Sources Determining the Cause And then… Cope temporarily with the stress Eliminate stressors Develop resiliency How Can Awareness of Stress Symptoms Be Enhanced? : How Can Awareness of Stress Symptoms Be Enhanced? Physical Symptoms Psychological Substitutes Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always Constant fatigue      Low energy level      Recurring headaches      Gastrointestinal disorders      Bad breath      Sweaty hands or feet      Dizziness      High blood pressure      Pounding heart      Sources of Stress : Sources of Stress Major Organizational Stressors High-stress Occupations Job Role Interpersonal Relationships Major Personal Stressors Family Problems Financial Problems Health Problems Personality Major Environmental Stressors Economic Uncertainty Political Uncertainties Technological Change Types of Stressors: Causes : Types of Stressors: Causes Time Encounter Situational Anticipatory Managing Stress : Managing Stress Resiliency: : Resiliency: Physiological Cardiovascular conditioning Proper diet Social Supportive relations Mentors teamwork Psychological Balanced lifestyle Hardy personality Small wins strategy Relaxation techniques Short term strategies : Short term strategies Reframing Imagery Types of stressors and what we can do about them : Types of stressors and what we can do about them Time Stressors Work overload Lack of control Elimination Strategies Principles of time management Delegation Eliminating time stressors:Time management : Eliminating time stressors:Time management “Effective time management can enable managers to gain control over their time and organize their fragmented, chaotic environment.” Effective time management means… : Effective time management means… Spending time on important, not just urgent matters Distinguishing clearly between importance and urgency Focusing on results not methods Not feeling guilty when saying no Effective time management : Effective time management URGENCY High Low IMPORTANCE Low High 80/20 Rule : 80/20 Rule Activities Time Spent Results Trivial 80% 20% Vital 20% 80% Efficient time management : Efficient time management Too little time; too much to do How do I get more done? Schedule : Schedule Schedule Activities Horizontal Scheduling Vertical Scheduling Directing and Controlling Rules : Rules Read selectively Make lists Everything in its place Prioritize Multitask the routine Discretionary task jar Divide up the big jobs Critical 20% Best time for important jobs Arrange non-interrupted time Don’t procrastinate Keep track of time Set deadlines Use waiting time Designate time for busy work Closure on one thing a day Schedule personal time Limit worry time Long term objectives Continuous improvement Tips for managers : Tips for managers Hold routine meetings at end of day Set time limit Hold meetings only if needed Agendas, minutes Start on time Paper work decisions Organize Limit interruptions Slide 26: Delegate Empowerment: allow for initiative Give credit to those who deserve it Types of stressors and what we can do about them : Types of stressors and what we can do about them Encounter Stressors: Role Conflicts Issue Interaction Elimination Strategies: Delegation Interpersonal skills Conflict resolution Resilience Social support; Collaboration Self awareness EQ Types of stressors and what we can do about them : Types of stressors and what we can do about them Situational Stressors: Unfavourable working conditions Rapid change Elimination Strategies: Work redesign Changing jobs Short term Strategies resiliency Work redesign : Work redesign Level of task demand Level of autonomy (individual control & discretion) Level of interest Feedback Types of stressors and what we can do about them : Types of stressors and what we can do about them Anticipatory Stressors: Unpleasant expectations Fear Elimination Strategies: Time management Priorities; planning Short term strategies Resiliency Stress and Self awareness : Stress and Self awareness Values Attitude towards change Cognitive style Interpersonal orientation “There is more to life than increasing its speed.” : “There is more to life than increasing its speed.” Mahatma Gandhi You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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