History - types of psychologists

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Intro to Psychology : 

Intro to Psychology History of Psychology, Types of Psychologists

What is Psychology? : 

What is Psychology? Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes Mental processes: what the brain does when we think, remember, feel, etc. Behavior: outwardly observable acts of an individual, alone, or in a group. Goals Describe Explain predict control mental processes and behavior. The experimental study of behavior and the practical applications that arise from them A very broad and interdisciplinary field

Brief History of Psychology : 

Brief History of Psychology Earliest roots: philosophy E.g., Descartes What is the mind? Is it different from the body? Cartesian dualism studied reflexes Focus on existence of mind

Toward a Scientific Psychology: Biology : 

Toward a Scientific Psychology: Biology Pierre Flourens - Experimental Ablation Case of Phineas Gage Hermann von Helmholtz – Studied neuronal transmission. Ernst Weber and psychophysics

Scientific Study of Psychology: Structuralism (ca 1870’s -1900) : 

Scientific Study of Psychology: Structuralism (ca 1870’s -1900) Wilhelm Wundt – the father of psychology Set up the first psychology lab in 1879. Created the approach of structuralism Wanted to know what the structure of the mind was Used introspection Edward Titchener – student of Wundt, introduced experimental psychology to the USA.

Functionalism (ca 1880’s – current) : 

Functionalism (ca 1880’s – current) Arose in protest to the private mental events studied by structuralists Focused on the process of conscious activity Had its roots with evolution. How is a particular behavior adaptive? William James: Not what mind does, but why it does it Became incorporated into all of psychology

Gestalt Psychology : 

Gestalt Psychology School of thought that emphasized the total experience of the individual and not just parts of the mind or behavior The whole is greater than the sum of its parts Wanted to stay away from reductionism Lacked scientific rigor and was displaced Major influence in sensation and perception

Psychoanalysis : 

Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud Focused on the causes and treatment of emotional disturbances, and particularly the unconscious. Assumed that psychological maladjustment is a consequence of unresolved conflict Important in the history of psychotherapy

Behaviorism (ca 1915 – current) : 

Behaviorism (ca 1915 – current) Rejected mental events. Psychology should only study observable and verifiable events. John Watson – Father of behaviorism. Simplicity; belief in reductionism. Stimulus – response Used animals (pigeons and rats) B. F. Skinner Dominated psychology for over 50 years.

The Cognitive Revolution (mid 1970’s) : 

The Cognitive Revolution (mid 1970’s) A return to the studies of the mind and how it worked The computer largely influenced theories of the mind. Study of perception, representation, decision making, memory, etc.

Evolutionary Psychology : 

Evolutionary Psychology Relies heavily on Darwinian evolution. Traits and behaviors exist because they were selected during evolution. Individuals who possessed the particular trait had a reproductive advantage on individuals who did not. Behaviors exist for a reason. Compare human behaviors with other animals. Comparative psychology.

Behavioral Neuroscience (1990’s especially) : 

Behavioral Neuroscience (1990’s especially) The “Decade of the Brain” Technological advances Goal is a biological explanation of behavior.

Behavioral Genetics (2000’s) : 

Behavioral Genetics (2000’s) How does our genetic makeup influence our behavior Encouraged by newer technologies and developments Human genome project Level of analysis is the gene

Types of Psychologists : 

Types of Psychologists Experimental vs. Applied Experimental: Use the scientific method to uncover principles of psychology. Applied: take the principles and apply them to help others

Slide 20: 

Biological psychology – also called physiological psychology, neuroscience, neuropsychology Studies how the brain works. How does it produce the behavior that we show? How are things learned in the brain? How are emotions generated? Often study animals Often study cases of brain damage Very interdisciplinary

Slide 21: 

Learning / Animal Behavior Very influenced by behaviorism Study how animals (including humans) learn. Typically use rats, mice, or pigeons Comparative psychology / evolutionary psychology Based around evolution – how has behavior evolved. Comparison is of species! Study many different species E.g., evolution of emotion E.g., chimpanzees and language E.g., lemur memory

Slide 23: 

Cognitive psychology– study of the mind emphasizes internal mental processes emphasizes the importance of cognitive processes, such as perception, memory, and thinking E.g., how does memory work? Think of your grandmother

Slide 24: 

Social psychology - study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others Study attitudes, conformity, helping behavior, etc. E.g., Why does Bob like Coors light? E.g., How does a jury reach a verdict?

Slide 25: 

Developmental psychology – studies how behavior changes over time Studies children – lifespan approach How do we change as we age? E.g., when do infants start walking? E.g., what can be done to help children that are not thriving. E.g., is it healthy for teens to vent to their friends?

Applied Psychologists : 

Applied Psychologists Clinical – PhD in clinical psychology Tries to help individuals suffering from psychological maladjustment Uses psychotherapy to treat psychological disorders E.g., treat depression, anger management, etc. Psychiatry – MD or DO – branch of medicine that specializes in psychological disorders Can prescribe medication to help alleviate a problem May also use psychotherapy E.g., treat depression, anger management, etc.

Slide 27: 

Counseling psychology Very similar to clinical Typically deal with healthier individuals career and vocational assessment Industrial / Organizational seek to apply psychological principles to practical problems of education, industry, marketing, etc. E.g., implement leadership program E.g., Help companies get the most out of employees – The two Bobs

Slide 29: 

School psychologist – help children in school Address things like: Learning disabilities Attention-deficit disorder Behavioral disorders Sport psychologist – applies psychological principles to improve athletic performance

Slide 30: 

Forensic psychologist - applications of psychological knowledge to the understanding of crime and criminal justice Study abnormal psychology Personality psychology Social psychology

Ethics : 

Ethics Immoral studies Experiments in Nazi Germany Other studies in the US and around the world Research with humans and animals must now be carefully reviewed. All research must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB). IRB’s consist of both scientists and people in the community. The IRB considers the risks and benefits of each research proposal and decides if it should be performed.

Requirements with Human Research : 

Requirements with Human Research 1. Must have informed consent. 2. Be advised of the possible risks and benefits of the procedure. 3. Be told that they can withdraw from the study at any time without being penalized. 4. After the experiment, participants must be debriefed. 5. Deceiving participants is approved only when the participant will not be harmed and knowledge gained outweighs the use of dishonesty.

Research with Animals : 

Research with Animals All research with animals must have the approval of an IRB. The IRB ensures that: 1. Animals are housed properly 2. Animals are not mistreated. 3. Researchers may not cause animals pain unless that is what is explicitly being studied and there are potential benefits to humans of inflicting pain. Labs may also inspected by USDA, OSCA, and must have a veterinarian in charge of care. PETA may also have an eye on laboratories.

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