Developmental Psychology - Lecture 2 - 2

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Human Development Continued…

Web Details for Lecture Slides : 

Web Details for Lecture Slides Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell www.psyberspace.info Click on Psychology Teaching then: BACH 1131/1161 slide series

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell To Recap… This lecture continues from where we reviewed: Research Methods of Developmental Psychology Human Conception through to Birth Infant and Child Development Piaget’s 4 Stages of Cognitive Development

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell This Week… This weeks lecture looks at: Psychosocial Development Adolescent Development Gender Differences

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Erik Erikson (1902-1994) believed we pass through 8 distinct stages of psychosocial development across the life span. Each of these 8 stages is marked by conflict we must overcome. “Pertaining to social relationships involving psychological factors.” (Chaplin, 1985, pg 375)

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued…

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued… Most research supports Erikson’s 8 Stage Theory. However, it is argued that people differ at the ages of transition through each stage. Culture and Society affect child development.

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued… Early Attachment Erikson believes that our first major conflict is in our first year of infancy:Trust vs. Mistrust Infants develop trust through Social Attachment

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued… Harlow & Zimmerman (1959) – is physical contact more important than nourishment to infants? They concluded that physical contact is more important to infants.

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued… Second year of development we enter the conflict of:Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Exploration of environment & independence. Caregivers who stifle their child during this stage often promote feelings of shame or doubt in the child.

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued… 3rd Year of Development, the child is met with conflict over: Initiative vs. Guilt Starts to show initiative in play and control over emotional impulses. Overall, the child begins to gain a sense of what is right and wrong from their experiences.

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued… From age 6 – 12 years, the child faces conflict over: Industry vs. Inferiority Industrious children feel competent during this stage. Non-industrious children begin to develop inferiority complexes.

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Psychosocial Development Continued… Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Parent-Child Relationships Baumrind (1983) states that there are 3 types of parenting: Permissive – Set few rules and rarely punish their children. Authoritarian – Set strict rules and rely on punishment. Authoritative – warm and loving, yet insist their children behave appropriately.

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued… Research supporting Authoritative Parenting states: Children less likely to use drugs(Jackson, Bee-Gates, & Henriksen, 1994) Perform better at school(Steinberg et al., 1992) Are more socially well-adjusted(Durbin et al., 1993)

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued… Day Care In the 1990’s, half of the population of toddlers in the USA spent 20hrs a week in day care. Research on the impact of Day Care is complex. Belsky (1988) claims that more than 20 hours a week in the first year of life, leads to insecure and aggressive behaviour in later life.

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued… Parental Conflict Children are affected by parental relationships A meta-analysis of research found that parental discord often leads to negative parent-child relationships. It is unclear which is worse – divorcing parents, or troubled parents staying together.

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued… Interaction with Peers Children are equally affected by peer relationships to that of their family members Friendships not normally formed before 3 years Hartup (1989) – 95% of childhood friendships formed are same gender

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued… Overall, the most important findings on peer relationships with children are: Socially & Academically competent children are popular with their peers Withdrawn, aggressive or academically deficient children are rejected by their peers

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued… Gender-Role Development Sigmund Freud provided the first formal theories of gender role development: Oedipus Complex for males Electra Complex for females

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued… Gender-Role Development Continued… Social Learning Theory: Assumes that we learn behaviours mainly through observation and mental processing of information. Gender Schema Theory: Same as Social Learning Theory but also includes Cognitive Perspectives of Learning.

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued… Gender-Role Development Continued… Gender Schema Theory:- Gender-Schematic children categorise gender into attributes (Boys like playing with cars; Girls like playing with Dolls).- Gender Aschematic children do not process information into masculine and feminine categories.

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued… Moral Development The most influential theory of Moral Development is that of Kohlberg (1981). Moral ability is based on the ability of one’s level of cognitive development.

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued… Moral Development Continued… 3 Levels of Moral Development:i) Preconventional Level – concerned with the consequences that behaviour has for oneself.Ii) Conventional Level – concerned with upholding laws and conventional values and by favouring obedience to authority.Iii) Postconventional Level – concerned with obeying mutually agreed laws and the need to uphold human dignity.

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Psychosocial Development Continued… Moral Development Continued… It discusses levels of moral reasoning – not moral action. Situations play a part in moral reasoning and action. Gilligan (1982) believed that Kohlberg’s theory was based on research carried out only on males. Gilligan believed that male morality and female morality are different.

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Adolescent Development Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Adolescent Development “The transition period lasting from the onset of puberty to the beginning of adulthood.” Physical Development Girls show a growth spurt between 10 – 12 years. Boys show a growth spurt between 12 – 14 years. Primary and Secondary sex characteristics take place.- Sperm production in males; Ovulation in females.- Sex hormones not related to reproduction.

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Adolescent Development Cognitive Development Adolescent Cognitive Development is less dramatic than that of Physical Development. Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage is usually reached by age 11. However, some children take longer to develop abstract reasoning skills.

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Adolescent Development Psychosocial Development Identity Achievement: According to Erikson, the role of the Adolescent is to resolve the crisis of Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescents also become more influenced by peer values, especially in regards to styles, sexuality and drug use.

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Adolescent Development Gender Differences Cognitive Abilities:Who is better at what?- Verbal Abilities = Higher in Females than Males- Spatial Abilities = Higher in Males than Females- Mathematical Abilities = Higher in Males than Females

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Adolescent Development Personality and Social Behaviour Mainly interested in Personality and Aggression. Personality: Men are more Assertive, but Women are more Extroverted.The personality differences tend to be found across the lifespan.

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Adolescent Development Personality and Social Behaviour Continued… Aggression: Men are found to be more aggressive than women. However, aggressive behaviour is believed to be connected to gender roles. Men and women act in accordance to their gender roles when being observed. When believed to be unobserved, men can display empathy and women aggressiveness.

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Adolescent Development Explanation of Possible Gender Differences Physiological and socio-cultural differences are most often enlisted to explain gender differences.Physiological Factors Buss (1995) believes men and women inherit certain behavioural tendencies due to evolutionary history. Collaer & Hines (1995) believe all gender differences are hormonal, not historic.

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Adolescent Development Explanation of Possible Gender Differences Continued… Socio-Cultural Factors Benbow (1988) believes that it is environmental and physiological factors that lead to gender differences. Jacklin (1989) supported Benbow’s research by demonstrating that gender-roles are learnt, not innate!

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Copyright © 2004 - 2006 Dr. Andrew J. Campbell Next Week… Adult Development And Now… Your movie of the week: “Gender Differences”