Orangutans

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Orangutans : 

Orangutans The orangutans are the only exclusively Asian living genus of great ape. They are among the most intelligent primates and use a variety of sophisticated tools, also making sleeping nests each night from branches and foliage. They are generally not aggressive and live a mostly solitary life foraging for food. They are the largest living arboreal animals with longer arms than other great apes. Their hair is typically reddish-brown, instead of the brown or black hair typical of other great apes

Tool use and culture : 

Tool use and culture Like the other great apes, orangutans are among the most intelligent primates. Wild chimpanzees have been known since the 1960s to use tools. Tool use in orangutans was observed by Birutė Galdikas in ex-captive populations vidence of sophisticated tool manufacture and use in the wild was reported from a population of orangutans in Suaq Balimbing (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) in 1996. These orangutans developed a tool kit for use in foraging that consisted of insect-extraction tools for use in the hollows of trees, and seed-extraction tools which were used in harvesting seeds from hard-husked fruit. The orangutans adjusted their tools according to the nature of the task at hand and preference was given to oral tool use. This preference was also found in an experimental study of captive orangutans (P. pygmaeus).

Livelihood : 

Livelihood

Orangutan Behavior : 

Orangutan Behavior

Interesting Facts : 

Interesting Facts Some captive released individuals learned independently to untie complex knots that secured boats and rafts, and then to shove off, board, and ride the vessels across rivers.Wild orangutans have also been observed making tools to scratch themselves, using leafy branches to shelter under, and using branches for foraging, honey collection etc. Released captive individuals are reported to use sticks for digging, fighting, prying, eating, scratching, and many other purposes.

Do you know ? : 

Do you know ?

Such Orangutans are now endangered : 

Such Orangutans are now endangered

Why are they endangered ? : 

Why are they endangered ?

Human-orangutan conflict : 

Human-orangutan conflict Competition of limited nature resources

Cause of conflict : 

Cause of conflict Habitat lost and fragmentation by human activity (conversion): Oil palm plantation Forest fire Logging Mining Infrastructure

Process of Conflict : 

Process of Conflict Human-orangutan conflict at oil palm plantation started with:

1. Land clearing : 

1. Land clearing

2. Burning : 

2. Burning

3. Young palm as main diet for orangutan : 

3. Young palm as main diet for orangutan

Human-orangutan conflict (the victim): : 

Human-orangutan conflict (the victim): 1. Starving orangutan enter the plantation

2. Orangutan as pest (assumption by plantation) : 

2. Orangutan as pest (assumption by plantation)

3. Buried a life by the worker : 

3. Buried a life by the worker

4. Habitat fragmentation : 

4. Habitat fragmentation

5.Orangutan starving to death : 

5.Orangutan starving to death

6. Orangutan burning : 

6. Orangutan burning

7. Collecting bones from the killing fields : 

7. Collecting bones from the killing fields

8. Baby orangutan as a pet (wildlife trafficking) : 

8. Baby orangutan as a pet (wildlife trafficking)

Other victim… : 

Other victim…

Orangutan skulls can still fetch up to US$70 in towns : 

Orangutan skulls can still fetch up to US$70 in towns Habitat destruction and fragmentation is by far the greatest threat to this species. This problem is caused by commercial logging, and forest clearance for oil palm plantations and agriculture. Huge tracts of forest have been cleared throughout the orangutan's range as legal and illegal logging devastate their habitat. Orangutans are also exploited and evidence suggests that they are also hunted in Kalimantan and Sumatra.

Habitat loss : 

Habitat loss Uncontrolled fires present a grave threat: WWF-Indonesia estimates that nearly two million hectares of land were burnt in Indonesia in 1997, and that thousands of fires occurred mainly in central and west Kalimantan and southern Sumatra. There is a much higher incidence of fire in logged areas than in natural forest. In 1997, 160 logging companies were accused of involvement in the fires, but only 46 of these were investigated fully. Thousands of hectares of land were also affected in Sabah and Sarawak in Malaysia.

Slide 26: 

WWF Netherlands

Slide 27: 

CHALLANGE: Kalimantan Forest landcover 2000 Orangutan 2003 (red) Oil palm concession 2002

Hunting : 

Hunting The direct exploitation of orangutans by humans is another major problem, with these animals still being killed for food. Orangutans are also hunted in retaliation when they move into agricultural areas and destroy crops. This occurs more in times of environmental stress when orangutans can't find the food they need in the forest. There have been reports of local hunting pressure as a result of recent fires. Because of ensuing food shortages, the species has become an easy target for hunters. There are no cultural taboos against eating orangutans and they are large and slow targets. Females in particular are most often hunted. Where they are caught with their offspring, these are often kept as pets. At the same time, there has been an increase in orangutan skulls in local towns.

Illegal trade : 

Illegal trade The pet trade is another major problem. An estimated 1,000 orangutans may have been imported into Taiwan for the pet trade between 1985 and 1990. It is thought that for each orangutan reaching Taiwan, as many as three to five additional animals die in the process. Orang-utan trade has also been reported in Kalimantan where both live and dead orangutans are sold. Orang-utan skulls can fetch up to US$70 in towns. Recent enforcement of the law in Taiwan has reduced the importation of orangutans, but the trade remains a threat in Indonesia where there is still demand for orangutans as pets.

Orangutan Conservation : 

Orangutan Conservation When orangutans get rescued, there are people who work with them to try to get them ready to be returned to their natural habitat. This includes both young orangutans as well as adults. Although this has been quite successful, some orangutans have difficulties readjusting to life in the wild. At this time, there are approximately 12,000 - 15,000 Bornean orangutans left. Far fewer are the Sumatran orangutans who only number about 3,000 - 5,000. Fortunately, organizations such as the Orangutan Conservancy and the Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme are working to help maintain a natural habitat for orangutans along with education and awareness raising, and the rehabilitation of orangutans.

Orangutan Conservation : 

Orangutan Conservation

Slide 32: 

Do they have a future?...

I think you will be sad seeing the Orangutansso now we are going to see a funny video by an Orangutan : 

I think you will be sad seeing the Orangutansso now we are going to see a funny video by an Orangutan

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