220Chap1.3

Views:
 
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Slide 1: 

Cognitive Psychology Chapter 1.3 Introduction

Slide 2: 

Study Questions. • Why might we consider cognitive psychology to be a scientific revolution? Why might we consider it to not be a revolution? 12/11/2008 Outline Psychological Antecedents Two Revolutions Precursors from other disciplines The Birth of Cognitive Science

History of Cognitive Psychology : 

History of Cognitive Psychology Two Revolutions Behaviourism The Cognitive Revolution Noam Chomsky Rebuttal of Skinner’s “Verbal Behaviour” Verbal Learning The problem with human subjects

History of Cognitive Psychology : 

A scientific revolution … or a renaissance The Gestaltist Movement Rejection of structuralism Phi-phenomena Psychophysics Relating psychological experience to physical stimuli History of Cognitive Psychology

History of Cognitive Psychology : 

A revolution … or behaviourism + mentalism? From behaviourism, the cognitive approach rejected Extrapolation from a small set of premises Animal experimentation Learning a central problem Logical positivism Stimulus control over all behaviour Antimentalism History of Cognitive Psychology

History of Cognitive Psychology : 

A revolution … or behaviourism + mentalism? From behaviourism, the cognitive approach took Nomothetic explanation as a goal Empiricism as a method of proof Laboratory control Rational canons of science The Law of Parsimony History of Cognitive Psychology

History of Cognitive Psychology : 

The Birth of Cognitive Psychology WW II Human engineering Brain-damaged soldiers Advances in Communications Information theory and the human information processor Development of servo-mechanical devices Tackling teleology (purposeful behaviour) The development of the computer AI / Simulations History of Cognitive Psychology

History of Cognitive Psychology : 

The Birth of Cognitive Psychology WW II and Human Engineering Limits of the behaviourist approach Problems of perception, judgment, decision making, problem solving “man / machine system” concept Humans as receivers, processors, and transmitters of information. From human engineering, cognitive psychology has retained: Humans as information processors Processing limits Government interest in funding (e.g., NASA) History of Cognitive Psychology

History of Cognitive Psychology : 

The Birth of Cognitive Psychology Advances in Communications Engineering Information theory and the human information channels From communications engineering, cognitive psychology retained: Coding Limited channel capacity Serial and parallel transmission / processing History of Cognitive Psychology

History of Cognitive Psychology : 

The Birth of Cognitive Psychology The Hixon Symposium (Sept. 1948) Karl Lashley The Problem of Serial Order in Behaviour Alan Turing: Turing Machine Warren McCulloch & Walter Pitts: First artificial neural network Norbert Weiner: “Cybernetics” or the “man and the machine Claude Shannon: Information Theory Information as binary digits History of Cognitive Psychology

History of Cognitive Psychology : 

The Birth of Cognitive Psychology Miller’s recollections Cognitive science as a counter-revolution Birthdate of Cognitive Science: Sept. 11, 1956 Key events in 1956: • Bruner, Goodenough, & Austin publish “A Study of Thinking” • Tanner & Swets apply signal detection theory to perception • Miller’s “magical number” paper is published • Carol publishes a volume of Whorf’s works on the effects of language on thought • Sept 11: Symposium at M.I.T. by the “Special Interest Group in Information theory” - Newell & Simon with a “logic machine” - Rochester used a computer to test Hebb’s cell assemblies theory - Chomsky laid the foundations for “Syntactic Stuctures” - Other papers discussed the speed of perceptual processes and SDT. History of Cognitive Psychology

authorStream Live Help