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I’ll be there for you. : I’ll be there for you. Why Study Children? : Why Study Children? 1. Maximize children’s development – Society’s future 2. Increase effectiveness as parents and teachers 3. Understand children 4. Understand adults – The present is informed by the past 5. Understand the process of development Discussion : Discussion Which reason for studying children is most meaningful to you? Why? The History of Childhood : The History of Childhood Periods of enlightenment & ignorance Medieval times - miniature adults Reformation - Harsh, restrictive parenting 1632 Locke - “tabula rasa” 1712 Rousseau - noble savages Scientific Beginnings : Scientific Beginnings Anthropometric lab G. Stanley Hall Baby biographies Mandatory education Binet and the testing movement Norms and Longitudinal Studies : Norms and Longitudinal Studies Gesell Institute – Norms Bailey studies of intelligence McFarland/Honzig studies of personality Oakland growth studies of adolescence The Role of Personal Assumptions : The Role of Personal Assumptions Thought through or automatic Linked to feeling and action Think about your own personal assumptions. How might they affect your understanding in this class? Some of My Assumptions : Some of My Assumptions Psychology is both art and science Psychology has limits as a discipline Human behavior has multiple causes Psychology is preparadigmatic Psychological theories have: Range of usefulness Point of maximum applicability Slide 10: An Example of Three Theories My Assumptions Continued : My Assumptions Continued All actions have consequences Human beings have limited freedom Life involves struggle Children are robust and vulnerable Family is powerful (+ & -) Human beings are unique Growth can be continual What are your assumptions? : What are your assumptions? How do your assumptions effect your view of children? Parents? Teachers? Compare and contrast your assumptions with mine What evidence is there for your assumptions? Methods of Child Study : Methods of Child Study Science : Science Observation and measurement - The Challenge Reliability Validity Basic Methods of Research : Basic Methods of Research Case study Systematic naturalistic observation Correlational methods Systems approaches Experimental methods Small-n approaches Time Strategies ** Development : Time Strategies ** Development Longitudinal strategies Cross-Sectional strategies Sequential strategies Risk research : Risk research Retrospective designs Prospective designs Epidemiologic Research : Epidemiologic Research Prevalence or incidence Multiple Methods : Multiple Methods Each method has strengths and weakness Combining methods adds strength to the findings Ethics in Research : Ethics in Research Integrity Openness Awareness of research effects Theories of Child Development : Theories of Child Development Bricks : Bricks Brick Home : Brick Home What is a theory? : What is a theory? Organizes data Allows us to see some things more clearly Hides other things from view Classical Theories 1 : Classical Theories 1 Psychoanalytic perspective Theorists: Freud, Erickson, Mahler Basics Organismic (active) Discontinous (stages or periods) Nature and nurture (bio. & environ.) New developments Classical Theories 2 : Classical Theories 2 Social learning perspective Theorists: Skinner, Pavlov, Bandura Basics Mechanistic (passive) Continuous (no stages or periods) Emphasis on nurture (environment) New developments Classical Theories 3 : Classical Theories 3 Cognitive Development Theorists: Piaget, Flavell Basics Organismic (active) Discontinuous (stages or periods) Nature and nurture (bio. & environ.) New developments More Recent Theories 1 : More Recent Theories 1 Information processing Basics Organismic and mechanistic Continuous (no stages or periods) Nature and nurture (bio. & environ.) More Recent Theories 2 : More Recent Theories 2 Ethology Theorist: Lorenz Basics Organismic (active) Continuous and discontinuous Nature and nurture (bio. & environ.) More Recent Theories 3 : More Recent Theories 3 Ecological systems Theorist: Bronfenbrenner Basics Organismic (active) Nature and nurture (bio. & environ.) More Recent Theories 4 : More Recent Theories 4 Sociocultural/Linguistic Approach Theorist: Vygotsky Basics Organismic (active) Continuous (no stages or periods) Nature and nurture (bio. & environ.) More Recent Theories 5 : More Recent Theories 5 Dynamic systems theory (family systems) Basics Organismic (active) Continuous (no stages or periods) Nature and nurture (bio. & environ.) End : End You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.