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Origin in definition of management Organizing : In the words of Louis Allen – “Organizing is the process of identifying and grouping work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing relationship for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives.” Organizing Slide 4: The aforesaid definition of organizing emphasizes upon the fact that: Defining responsibility. Delegating authority. Establishing relationship between authority and responsibility. are of vital importance for organizing. Authority : Definition: “ The right in a position to exercise discretion in making decisions affecting others.” -Weihrich , Cannice & Koontz. Authority Slide 6: Authority is seen as the legitimate right of a person to exercise influence or the legitimate right to make decisions, to carry out actions, and to direct others. For example, managers expect to have the authority to assign work, hire employees, or order merchandise and supplies. - www.enotes .com Characteristics of authority: : It is legitimate right to command and control subordinates. Authority is granted to achieve the cherished goal of the enterprise. Authority is right to direct others to get things done. Authority is a commanding force binding different individuals. Authority is delegated downward. Characteristics of authority: Authority is delegated downward: : Authority is delegated downward: Middle level Top level Low level workers Authority Power : Power is defined as “the ability of individuals or groups to induce or influence the beliefs or actions of other persons or groups” - Weihrich , Cannice & Koontz. Power Power : Power is a much broader concept than authority. Bases of power: - Legitimate power: arises from position. - power of expertness: arises from knowledge. - referent power: arises from belief in ideas. -coercive power: power to punish. - reward power: power to reward. Power Responsibility : Responsibility Definition: “Responsibility may be defined as the obligation of a subordinate to whom a duty has been assigned to perform.” - Koontz O’ Donnel Characteristics of responsibility: : Responsibility is to assign duty to human beings only. Responsibility always flows upward from juniors to seniors. Responsibility is result of duty assigned. Responsibility is the obligation to complete the job as per instruction. Responsibility can never be delegated. It is personal obligation ,and absolute also. The manager remains responsible to his superiors for his job even after its delegation. Characteristics of responsibility: Responsibility moves upwards : Responsibility moves upwards responsibility workers Low level Middle level Top level Empowerment : Empowerment means that employees, managers, or teams at all levels in the organization are given the power to make decisions without asking their superiors for permission. Empowerment Relationships between authority and responsibility: : 1. Parity in authority and responsibility: After giving the responsibility, requisite authority regarding work delegated should be granted. Relationships between authority and responsibility: authority responsibility Imbalance in authority and responsibility : Case 1 Imbalance in authority and responsibility authority responsibility If authority is greater than responsibility ,then this could result in autocratic behavior. Imbalance in authority and responsibility : Case 2……. Imbalance in authority and responsibility responsibility authority If responsibility is greater than authority ,then this could result in frustration. Slide 18: 2. Authority always flows downwards, while responsibility always flows upwards. Top level Middle level Low level workers Authority responsibility My pleasure to answer your ….. : My pleasure to answer your ….. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.