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NANOTECHNOLOGY (X10-9) “The Next Really Big Small Thing”

Slide 3: 

Nanotechnology Regulations Implications Applications TOPICS

Nanotechnology is… : 

Nanotechnology is… Field of applied science whose theme is the control of matter on an atomic and molecular scale.

How Small Is The Nano Scale? : 

How Small Is The Nano Scale? One nanometer (nm) is one billionth, or 10-9 of a meter. One human hair(cross-section) is about 100,000 nanometers. Larger than the Nanoscale is the microscale, and smaller than that is the atomic scale.

History : 

History Richard Feynman said: There’s plenty of room at the bottom.. An Invitation to Enter a New Field of Physics

Implications : 

Implications Health implications Nanotoxicology, Nanomedicine Environmental implications Societal implications

Health Implications : 

Health Implications The health implications of nanotechnology are the possible effects that the use of nanotechnological materials and devices will have on human health. Nanotechnology's health implications can be split into two aspects: the medical implications to cure disease, and the potential health hazards posed by exposure to nanomaterials.

Nanotoxicology : 

Nanotoxicology Nanotoxicology is the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials. Because of quantum size effects and large surface area, nanomaterials have unique properties compared with their larger counterparts. For instance, Diesel nanoparticles have been found to damage the cardiovascular system in a mouse model.

Nanotoxicology Cycle : 

Nanotoxicology Cycle As nanomaterials grow in application, it is increasingly important to continually ask questions and assess the impact on human health and environment so that risks can be managed or avoided. Nanomaterials safety assessment is a continuous process with no clear beginning... or end.

Nanomedicine : 

Nanomedicine Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. The approaches to nanomedicine range from the medical use of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials.

Environmental Implication : 

Environmental Implication The environmental implications of nanotechnology are the possible effects that the use of nanotechnological materials and devices will have on the environment. Nanotechnology's environmental implications can be split into two aspects: the potential for nanotechnologcal innovations to help improve the environment, and the possibly novel type of pollution that nanotechnological materials might cause if released into the environment.

Environmental Implications : 

Environmental Implications Nanopollution is a generic name for all waste generated by nanodevices or during the nanomaterials manufacturing process. This kind of waste may be very dangerous because of its size. It can float in the air and might easily penetrate animal and plant cells causing unknown effects. Most human-made nanoparticles do not appear in nature, so living organisms may not have appropriate means to deal with nanowaste. It is probably one great challenge to nanotechnology: how to deal with its nanopollutants and nanowaste. Groups opposing the installation of nanotechnology laboratories in Grenoble, France, have spray painted their opposition on a former fortress above the city

Societal Implications : 

Societal Implications The societal implications of nanotechnology are the potential benefits and challenges that the introduction of novel nanotechnological devices and materials may hold for society and human interaction. The term is sometimes expanded to also include nanotechnology's health and environmental implications, but this article will only consider the social and political implications of nanotechnology.

Regulations : 

Regulations Define Regulation The nanotechnology label is used on an increasing number of commercially available products – from socks and trousers to tennis racquets and cleaning cloths. The emergence of such nanotechnologies, and their accompanying industries, have triggered calls for increased community participation and effective regulatory arrangements. So far, neither engineered nanoparticles nor the products and materials that contain them are subject to any special regulation regarding production, handling or labelling.

Slide 17: 

Regulation is "controlling human or societal behavior by rules or restrictions."

Applications : 

Applications Medicine Diagnostics Drug delivery Energy Reduction of energy consumption Increasing the efficiency of energy production Recycling of batteries

Applications : 

Applications Consumer goods Foods Household Cosmetics Agriculture

Medicine : 

Medicine Diagnostics Nanotechnology-on-a-chip is one more dimension of lab-on-a-chip technology. Magnetic nanoparticles, bound to a suitable antibody, are used to label specific molecules, structures or microorganisms.

Medicine : 

Medicine Drug Delivery Nanotechnology has been a boom in medical field by delivering drugs to specific cells using nanoparticles. The overall drug consumption and side-effects can be lowered significantly by depositing the active agent in the morbid region only and in no higher dose than needed. This highly selective approach reduces costs and human suffering.

Energy : 

Energy Reduction of Energy Consumption A reduction of energy consumption can be reached by better insulation systems, by the use of more efficient lighting or combustion systems, and by use of lighter and stronger materials in the transportation sector. Currently used light bulbs only convert approximately 5% of the electrical energy into light. Nanotechnological approaches like light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or quantum caged atoms (QCAs) could lead to a strong reduction of energy consumption for illumination.

Energy : 

Energy Increasing the efficiency of energy production Nanotechnology could help increase the efficiency of light conversion by using nanostructures with a continuum of band gaps. The degree of efficiency of the internal combustion engine is about 30-40% at the moment. Nanotechnology could improve combustion by designing specific catalysts with maximized surface area. In 2005, scientists at the University of Toronto developed a spray-on nanoparticle substance that, when applied to a surface, instantly transforms it into a solar collector.

Bandgaps : 

Bandgaps a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states exist.

Energy : 

Energy Recycling of Batteries Because of the relatively low energy density of batteries the operating time is limited and a replacement or recharging is needed. The huge number of spent batteries and accumulators represent a disposal problem. The use of batteries with higher energy content or the use of rechargeable batteries or supercapacitors with higher rate of recharging using nanomaterials could be helpful for the battery disposal problem.

Consumer Goods : 

Consumer Goods Foods Bacteria identification and food quality monitoring using biosensors; intelligent, active, and smart food packaging systems; nanoencapsulation of bioactive food compounds are few examples of emerging applications of nanotechnology for the food industry. Nanotechnology can be applied in the production, processing, safety and packaging of food. A nanocomposite coating process could improve food packaging by placing anti-microbial agents directly on the surface of the coated film. Nanocomposites could increase or decrease gas permeability of different fillers as is needed for different products. They can also improve the mechanical and heat-resistance properties and lower the oxygen transmission rate. Research is being performed to apply nanotechnology to the detection of chemical and biological substances for sensanges in foods.

Consumer Goods : 

Consumer Goods Household The most prominent application of nanotechnology in the household is self-cleaning or “easy-to-clean” surfaces on ceramics or glasses. Nanoceramic particles have improved the smoothness and heat resistance of common household equipment such as the flat iron.

Consumer Goods : 

Consumer Goods Cosmetics One field of application is in sunscreens. The traditional chemical UV protection approach suffers from its poor long-term stability. A sunscreen based on mineral nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide offer several advantages. Titanium oxide nanoparticles have a comparable UV protection property as the bulk material, but lose the cosmetically undesirable whitening as the particle size is decreased.

Consumer Goods : 

Consumer Goods Agriculture NanoScience concepts and Nanotechnology applications have the potential to redesign the production cycle, restructure the processing and conservation processes and redefine the food habits of the people. Major Challenges related to agriculture like Low productivity in cultivable areas, Large uncultivable areas,Shrinkage of cultivable lands, Wastage of inputs like water, fertilizers, pesticides, Wastage of products and of course Food security for growing numbers can be addressed through various applications of nanotechnology.

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