class vii mughals

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P.K.TESTING : 

P.K.TESTING Who made Tajmahal? What do you know about Humayun’s Tomb? Who was Humayun? Who came to rule after Delhi Sultanate?

MUGHAL DYNASTY : 

MUGHAL DYNASTY

CONTENTS : 

CONTENTS Introduction Who are Mughals? Emperors Military Traditions Relations Religion Akbar’s policies Mughal style of architecture Influence of Mughal Empire On the subcontinent Fall of mughal empire Conclusion

Introduction : 

Introduction Ruling as large a territory as the Indian subcontinent with such a diversity of people & cultures was a difficult task for a ruler to accomplish in Middle Ages. Mughals created an empire and accomplished what had hitherto seemed possible for only short periods. They expanded their kingdom from Agra to Delhi.

Who Are Mughals? : 

Who Are Mughals? The Mughals were descendants of two great lineages of rulers. From their mother’s side they were descendants of Genghis Khan, ruler of the Mongol tribes, China & Central Asia. From their father’s side they were the successors of Timur, the ruler of Iran, Iraq & Modern-day Turkey. They celebrated their genealogy pictorially, each ruler getting a picture made of Timur & himself.

Slide 6: 

The great rulersof Mughal Empire. BABUR HUMAYUN AKBAR JAHANGIR SHAH JAHAN AURANGZEB

Slide 7: 

Babur the tiger came to power in1483 & ruled till 1530. he ruled over a very small kingdom in Turkestan. With significantly small armies he managed to conquer Afghanistan & the Delhi sultanate & all of Hindustan. BABUR

Slide 8: 

HUMAYUN Humayun inherited one of the largest empires in the world at the time and nearly ruined it. Between 1530 and 1540 he managed to lose all the land that his father worked so hard to get through rebellions from Afghanistan and India. He was sent into exile in Persia and created a small army. He ended up eventually regaining all the lands back but is looked upon as one of the worst Mughal emperors. At the end of his conquests he fell down a flight of stairs and broke his neck. He was succeeded by his son Akbar which in Arabic means" Great One."

Slide 9: 

Muslim, Indian and Western Historians all see Akbar as the greatest ruler throughout Indian history. He became emperor at the age of thirteen in 1556. He immediately began seizing land in Hindustan. He conquered more lands than any of his ancestors before him had. He was very wise in his rulings and tried to govern all his people equally and fairly. Since his conquered lands were so many he assigned governors to each region called mansabars. AKBAR

Akbar was succeeded by his favorite son, Jahangir, who ruled the empire from 1605 to 1628. Jahangir did not pursue military conquests as forcefully as his father, but he did manage to extend the empire into Bengal. His father had once said that any Empire that is not expanding is in decline. Jahangir had a great passion for the arts: painting, culture architecture, philosophy, and literature. He was known to carry the Mughal Empire through their richest cultural period. : 

Akbar was succeeded by his favorite son, Jahangir, who ruled the empire from 1605 to 1628. Jahangir did not pursue military conquests as forcefully as his father, but he did manage to extend the empire into Bengal. His father had once said that any Empire that is not expanding is in decline. Jahangir had a great passion for the arts: painting, culture architecture, philosophy, and literature. He was known to carry the Mughal Empire through their richest cultural period. JAHANGIR

Jahangir successor, Shah Jahan, inherited Akbar's obsession with the military. Shah Jahan ruled from 1628 ­1658. By the end of his reign, the Mughal Empire was expanding and seemed in charge and stable. He built a new capital and many other buildings. The most famous of all is the TajMahal in Agra. When his favorite wife died while giving birth to her fourteenth child, Shah Jahan decided to build her the most beautiful tomb that the world had ever seen and that was exactly what he did. Till this day the Taj Mahal is known as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The TajMahal took over twenty years to build and over twenty thousand men. All of his lavish building projects, though, eventually ran the treasury dry. Because of this he raised the taxes on all the people and raised a lot of hostility towards himself : 

Jahangir successor, Shah Jahan, inherited Akbar's obsession with the military. Shah Jahan ruled from 1628 ­1658. By the end of his reign, the Mughal Empire was expanding and seemed in charge and stable. He built a new capital and many other buildings. The most famous of all is the TajMahal in Agra. When his favorite wife died while giving birth to her fourteenth child, Shah Jahan decided to build her the most beautiful tomb that the world had ever seen and that was exactly what he did. Till this day the Taj Mahal is known as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The TajMahal took over twenty years to build and over twenty thousand men. All of his lavish building projects, though, eventually ran the treasury dry. Because of this he raised the taxes on all the people and raised a lot of hostility towards himself SHAH JAHAN

Slide 12: 

AURANGZEB The last great Mughal ruler was Aurangzeb Alamgir. During the fifty-year reign, the empire reached its greatest physical size but also showed unmistakable signs of decline. Aurangzeb restored Mughal military dominance & expanded power southwards.

Military : 

Military Babur, the first Mughal emperor , succeeded to the throne of ferghana in 1494 when he was only 12 years old. He was forced to leave his ancestral throne due to invasion of Mongol group, the uzbegs. In 1526 he defeated the sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim lodi, at panipat & captured Delhi & Agra

Mughal relations with other rulers : 

Mughal relations with other rulers As the Mughals became powerful many other rulers also joined them voluntarily. the rajputs are good example of this. many of them married their daughters into Mughal families and received high positions. But many resisted as well. once defeated, however, they were honorably treated by Mughals, given lands back as assignments.

Religion : 

Religion Mughals followed a different kind of religion. It was named sulh-i-kul .As in the wide expanse of the divine compassion there is room for all classes and the followers of all creeds, so…. in his Imperial dominions, which on all sides were limited only by the sea, there was room for the professors of opposite religions, & for beliefs, good & bad, and the road to intolerance was closed . Sunnis and shias met in one mosque and Christians and Jews in one church to pray. He consistently followed the principle of “universal peace” {sulh-i-kul} it was also followed by jahangir & shan jahan.

Mughals Traditions of succession : 

Mughals Traditions of succession The Mughals did not believe in the rule of primogeniture where the eldest son inherited his father’s estate. Instead they followed the Mughal and Timurid custom of`coparcenary inheritance amongst all sons. Which do you think is a fairer division of inheritance: primogeniture or coparcenary?

Akbar’s policies : 

Akbar’s policies The broad features of administration were laid down by Akbar. The empire was divided into provinces called subas, governed by a subadar who carried out both political and military functions. Subadar was supported by other officers. Akbar’s nobles commanded large armies and had access to large amounts of revenue. While they were loyal the empire functioned efficiently.

Slide 18: 

He was defeated by the new Afghan leader, Sher Khan Sur (later known as Sher Shah), wandered in exile in Persia, and finally settled in Kâbul. After 15 years, by which time the Sur regime was in a shambles, Humayun recaptured Hindustan just before his death in 1556. His young son Akbar soon recovered the lost empire, expanding its almost to the entire upper India. Akbar, who is often considered the true founder of the Mughal Empire, laid the grounds for the significant economic growth and the fabulous art and building activities of his successors. He died in 1605 and was succeeded by his eldest son, Jahangir. Mughal style of architecture

Mughal influence on the subcontinent : 

Mughal influence on the subcontinent The main Mughal contribution to the south Asia was their unique architecture. They also influenced these points: Persian art & culture amalgamated with native Indian art & culture. Urdu & Hindi languages were formed. Landscape gardening. A new style of architecture.

Slide 20: 

The Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent in the time of Aurangzeb Alamgir, but it collapsed with dramatic suddenness within a few decades after his death. The Mughal Empire owes its decline and ultimate downfall to a combination of factors; firstly Aurangzeb religious policy is regarded as a cause for the decline of the Mughal Empire as it led to disunity among the people. Although the policy did lead to weakening of the empire but the major cause of decline was the lack of worthy and competent successors after him. The character of Mughal kings had deteriorated over a period of time. The successive rulers after Aurangzeb were weak and lacked the character, motivation and commitment to rule the empire strongly. They had become ease loving and cowardly. They totally disregarded their state duties and were unable to detain the declining empire from its fall. Fall of Mughal Empire

RECAPITULATION : 

RECAPITULATION Babur defeated _________ at the battle of Panipat. To hold religious discussions Akbar built _________ at ________. Trace the origin of the Mughals. How did Babur establish his foothold in India? How would you describe the relationship between Akbar and the Rajputs?