MOBILE IP

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Mobile IP : 

Mobile IP Outline Intro to mobile IP Operation Problems with mobility

We’re not quite done with IP : 

CS 640 2 We’re not quite done with IP You’re probably sick and tired of hearing about all things IP Forwarding, routing, multicast, etc… One last topic we must cover because it’s going to be important in the future – mobile networking Examples of mobile networking today? Examples of mobile networking tomorrow? Mobile networking should not be confused with portable networking Portable networking requires connection to same ISP

Portable Networking Technology : 

CS 640 3 Portable Networking Technology Cellular systems Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) 3G Bluetooth Low cost, short range radio links between mobile devices Wireless Ethernet (802.11) Widely used wireless MAC layer technology

Mobility and Standard IP Routing : 

CS 640 4 Mobility and Standard IP Routing IP assumes end hosts are in fixed physical locations What happens if we move a host between networks? IP addresses enable IP routing algorithms to get packets to the correct network Each IP address has network part and host part This keeps host specific information out of routers DHCP is used to get packets to end hosts in networks This still assumes a fixed end host What if a user wants to roam between networks? Mobile users don’t want to know that they are moving between networks Why can’t mobile users change IP when running an application?

Mobile IP : 

CS 640 5 Mobile IP Mobile IP was developed as a means for transparently dealing with problems of mobile users Enables hosts to stay connected to the Internet regardless of their location Enables hosts to be tracked without needing to change their IP address Requires no changes to software of non-mobile hosts/routers Requires addition of some infrastructure Has no geographical limitations Requires no modifications to IP addresses or IP address format Supports security Could be even more important than physically connected routing IETF standardization process is still underway

Mobile IP Entities : 

CS 640 6 Mobile IP Entities Mobile Node (MN) The entity that may change its point of attachment from network to network in the Internet Detects it has moved and registers with “best” FA Assigned a permanent IP called its home address to which other hosts send packets regardless of MN’s location Since this IP doesn’t change it can be used by long-lived applications as MN’s location changes Home Agent (HA) This is router with additional functionality Located on home network of MN Does mobility binding of MN’s IP with its COA Forwards packets to appropriate network when MN is away Does this through encapsulation

Mobile IP Entities contd. : 

CS 640 7 Mobile IP Entities contd. Foreign Agent (FA) Another router with enhanced functionality If MN is away from HA the it uses an FA to send/receive data to/from HA Advertises itself periodically Forward’s MN’s registration request Decapsulates messages for delivery to MN Care-of-address (COA) Address which identifies MN’s current location Sent by FA to HA when MN attaches Usually the IP address of the FA Correspondent Node (CN) End host to which MN is corresponding (eg. a web server)

Mobile IP Support Services : 

CS 640 8 Mobile IP Support Services Agent Discovery HA’s and FA’s broadcast their presence on each network to which they are attached Beacon messages via ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP) MN’s listen for advertisement and then initiate registration Registration When MN is away, it registers its COA with its HA Typically through the FA with strongest signal Registration control messages are sent via UDP to well known port Encapsulation – just like standard IP only with COA Decapsulation – again, just like standard IP

Mobile IP Operation : 

CS 640 9 Mobile IP Operation A MN listens for agent advertisement and then initiates registration If responding agent is the HA, then mobile IP is not necessary After receiving the registration request from a MN, the HA acknowledges and registration is complete Registration happens as often as MN changes networks HA intercepts all packets destined for MN This is simple unless sending application is on or near the same network as the MN HA masquerades as MN There is a specific lifetime for service before a MN must re-register There is also a de-registration process with HA if an MN returns home

Registration Process : 

CS 640 10 Registration Process

Tables maintained on routers : 

CS 640 11 Tables maintained on routers Mobility Binding Table Maintained on HA of MN Maps MN’s home address with its current COA Visitor List Maintained on FA serving an MN Maps MN’s home address to its MAC address and HA address

Mobile IP Operation contd. : 

CS 640 12 Mobile IP Operation contd. HA then encapsulates all packets addressed to MN and forwards them to FA IP tunneling FA decapsulates all packets addressed to MN and forwards them via hardware address (learned as part of registration process) NOTE that the MN can perform FA functions if it acquires an IP address eg. via DHCP Bidirectional communications require tunneling in each direction

Mobile IP Tunneling : 

CS 640 13 Mobile IP Tunneling Across Internet

Security in Mobile IP : 

CS 640 14 Security in Mobile IP Authentication can be performed by all parties Only authentication between MN and HA is required Keyed MD5 is the default Replay protection Timestamps are mandatory Random numbers on request reply packets are optional HA and FA do not have to share any security information.

Problems with Mobile IP : 

CS 640 15 Problems with Mobile IP Suboptimal “triangle” routing What if MN is in same subnetwork as the node to which it is communicating and HA is on the other side of the world? It would be nice if we could directly route packets Solution: Let the CN know the COA of MN Then the CN can create its own tunnel to MN CN must be equipped with software to enable it to learn the COA Initiated by HA who notifies CN via “binding update” Binding table can become stale

Other Mobile IP Problems : 

CS 640 16 Other Mobile IP Problems Single HA model is fragile Possible solution – have multiple HA Frequent reports to HA if MN is moving Possible solution – support of FA clustering Security Connection hijacking, snooping… Many open research questions

Mobility in IPv6 : 

CS 640 17 Mobility in IPv6 Route Optimization is a fundamental part of Mobile IPv6 Mobile IPv4 it is an optional set of extensions that may not be supported by all nodes Foreign Agents are not needed in Mobile IPv6 MNs can function in any location without the services of any special router in that location Security Nodes are expected to employ strong authentication and encryption Other details…

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