ch_16_active_lecture _questions

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16 : 

16 The EndocrineSystem

A major difference between neurotransmitters and hormones is that hormones are secreted ____________. : 

A major difference between neurotransmitters and hormones is that hormones are secreted ____________. directly onto their target cell into the cerebrospinal fluid into ducts into the blood

A major determinant of a hormone’s mechanism of action is __________. : 

A major determinant of a hormone’s mechanism of action is __________. whether the hormonal molecule is hydrophobic or hydrophilic its size whether it is rapid acting or slow acting if it activates gene activity or not

Receptors for steroid hormones are commonly located _________. : 

Receptors for steroid hormones are commonly located _________. inside the target cell on the plasma membrane of the target cell in the blood plasma in the extracellular fluid

Interaction with a membrane-bound receptor will transduce the hormonal message via __________. : 

Interaction with a membrane-bound receptor will transduce the hormonal message via __________. depolarization direct gene activation a second messenger endocytosis

Treatment of a hormone’s target cell with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor will result in ________. : 

Treatment of a hormone’s target cell with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor will result in ________. immediate cessation of cell response to the hormone prolonged activity of the cell inability of the hormone to bind to its receptor irreversible binding of the hormone to its receptor

Second messenger–activating hormones circulate in minute quantities because: : 

Second messenger–activating hormones circulate in minute quantities because: they are not important signal molecules. small concentrations of hormone can activate many intracellular signals via amplification. they are continuously released from the gland. neurotransmitters also bind to hormone receptors.

Which of the following molecules act as second messengers? : 

Which of the following molecules act as second messengers? cAMP Ca2+ Inositol triphosphate All of the above

It’s possible for a steroid hormone and a protein hormone to affect the same intracellular protein because: : 

It’s possible for a steroid hormone and a protein hormone to affect the same intracellular protein because: the steroid hormone may direct the synthesis of the protein. the protein hormone may activate the protein. the protein hormone may direct the synthesis of the protein. of all of the above.

In order for a hormone to activate a target cell, the target cell must possess _______. : 

In order for a hormone to activate a target cell, the target cell must possess _______. a receptor a second messenger the hormone a chaperone

The most common form of endocrine malfunction is __________. : 

The most common form of endocrine malfunction is __________. failure of the gland to produce the hormone insensitivity of the target cell to the hormone overproduction of the hormone by the gland All of the above are common disorders.

When the pancreas releases insulin in direct response to blood glucose, this is an example of ________ stimulation. : 

When the pancreas releases insulin in direct response to blood glucose, this is an example of ________ stimulation. humoral neural hormonal negative feedback

When an infant suckles at his mother’s breast, the mother’s neurohypophysis releases oxytocin. This is an example of __________ stimulation. : 

When an infant suckles at his mother’s breast, the mother’s neurohypophysis releases oxytocin. This is an example of __________ stimulation. humoral neural hormonal negative feedback

When the ovaries secrete estrogen in response to the hormone GnRH, this is an example of __________ stimulation. : 

When the ovaries secrete estrogen in response to the hormone GnRH, this is an example of __________ stimulation. humoral neural hormonal negative feedback

Blood levels of hormone are kept within very narrow ranges by _________ mechanisms. : 

Blood levels of hormone are kept within very narrow ranges by _________ mechanisms. humoral neural hormonal negative feedback

Hormones secreted into the hypophyseal portal system are delivered directly to the ________. : 

Hormones secreted into the hypophyseal portal system are delivered directly to the ________. neurohypophysis adenohypophysis median eminence infundibulum

The long bone growth-promoting effects of growth hormone are mediated by __________. : 

The long bone growth-promoting effects of growth hormone are mediated by __________. somatostatin somatotrophs somatomedins insulin

Secretions from the corticotrophs activate cells of the _______, while secretions from the gonadotrophs affect cells of the ________. : 

Secretions from the corticotrophs activate cells of the _______, while secretions from the gonadotrophs affect cells of the ________. adrenal cortex; gonads thyroid; mammary glands gonads; adrenal cortex mammary glands; gonads

A patient is displaying high volumes of urine output and severe dehydration. The most likely cause is _________. : 

A patient is displaying high volumes of urine output and severe dehydration. The most likely cause is _________. hyposecretion of oxytocin hypersecretion of oxytocin hyposecretion of ADH hypersecretion of ADH

Common secretion(s) of the thyroid gland is (are) _________. : 

Common secretion(s) of the thyroid gland is (are) _________. calcitonin triiodothyronine thyroxine all of the above

A patient is losing weight rapidly, sweating profusely, and is always anxious. The patient may be suffering from _______. : 

A patient is losing weight rapidly, sweating profusely, and is always anxious. The patient may be suffering from _______. hypothyroidism cretinism hyperthyroidism hypersecretion of calcitonin

Occasionally, a female patient will experience hirsutism, or excessive facial hair growth. However, blood tests reveal that her levels of testosterone are normal for a female. Another cause could be hypersecretion of: : 

Occasionally, a female patient will experience hirsutism, or excessive facial hair growth. However, blood tests reveal that her levels of testosterone are normal for a female. Another cause could be hypersecretion of: catecholamines. mineralocorticoids. glucocorticoids. gonadocorticoids.

Two hormones govern calcium regulation. ________ acts to elevate blood calcium levels, whereas ________ lowers blood calcium levels. : 

Two hormones govern calcium regulation. ________ acts to elevate blood calcium levels, whereas ________ lowers blood calcium levels. PTH; calcitonin Thyroid hormones; calmodulin Calcitonin; PTH Calcitonin; thyroid hormone

__________ is the adrenal hormone responsible for maintaining appropriate blood sodium levels. : 

__________ is the adrenal hormone responsible for maintaining appropriate blood sodium levels. Cortisol DHEA Aldosterone Epinephrine

_________ trigger(s) secretion of aldosterone. : 

_________ trigger(s) secretion of aldosterone. Increased K+ Angiotensin II ANP Both a and b

During times of stress, elevated levels of _______ often occur, which explains why we get a cold during final exam time. : 

During times of stress, elevated levels of _______ often occur, which explains why we get a cold during final exam time. cortisol aldosterone ACTH androgens

Along with the sympathetic nervous system, the _________ is the other primary mediator of acute stress. : 

Along with the sympathetic nervous system, the _________ is the other primary mediator of acute stress. adrenal medulla adrenal cortex zona glomerulosa zona reticularis

The secretion of ________ helps regulate our circadian rhythms. : 

The secretion of ________ helps regulate our circadian rhythms. estrogen testosterone thyroid hormones melatonin

The thymus secretes the hormone(s) ______________. : 

The thymus secretes the hormone(s) ______________. thymopoietin thymosin thymic factor all of the above

Which of the following structures produces a hormone responsible for stimulating red blood cell production? : 

Which of the following structures produces a hormone responsible for stimulating red blood cell production? Stomach Heart Kidney Skin

Which of the following structures produces a precursor to hormonal vitamin D, important for Ca2+ regulation? : 

Which of the following structures produces a precursor to hormonal vitamin D, important for Ca2+ regulation? Stomach Heart Kidney Skin