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Slide 1: 

Patterns - kishore

Casting: : 

Casting: ” Foundry or casting is the process of producing metal/alloy component parts of desired shapes by pouring the molten metal/alloy into a prepared mould (of that shape) and then allowing the metal/alloy to cool and solidify. The solidified piece of metal/alloy is known as a CASTING”.

Steps involved in making a casting: : 

Steps involved in making a casting: Make the pattern out of Wood , Metal or Plastic. Prepare the necessary sand mixtures for mould and core making. Prepare the Mould and necessary Cores. Melt the metal/alloy to be cast. Pour the molten metal/alloy into mould and remove the casting from the mould after the metal solidifies. Clean and finish the casting. Test and inspect the casting. Remove the defects, if any. Relieve the casting stresses by Heat Treatment. Again inspect the casting. The casting is ready for shipping.

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P a t t e r n

Pattern: : 

Pattern: A Pattern is a model or the replica of the object to be cast. Except for the various allowances a pattern exactly resembles the casting to be made. Patterns may be in two or three pieces, where as casting are in a single piece. A pattern is required even if one object has to be cast. The quality of casting and the final product will be effected to a great extent by the planning of pattern.

Functions of Patterns: : 

Functions of Patterns: A Pattern prepares a mould cavity for the purpose of making a casting. A Pattern may contain projections known as core prints if the casting requires a core and need to be made hollow. Risers, runners and gates may form a part of the pattern. Patterns properly made and having finished and smooth surfaces reduce casting defects. Properly constructed patterns minimize overall cost of the casting.

Selection of Pattern Materials: : 

Selection of Pattern Materials: The following factors assist in selecting proper pattern material: No. of castings to be produced. Metal to be cast. Dimensional accuracy & surface finish. Shape, complexity and size of casting. Casting design parameters. Type of molding materials. The chance of repeat orders. Nature of molding process. Position of core print.

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The pattern material should be: Easily worked, shaped and joined. Light in weight. Strong, hard and durable. Resistant to wear and abrasion . Resistant to corrosion, and to chemical reactions. Dimensionally stable and unaffected by variations in temperature and humidity. Available at low cost.

Slide 9: 

Pattern materials

Materials for making patterns: : 

Materials for making patterns: Wood Metal Plastic Plaster Wax.

1. Wood Patterns: : 

1. Wood Patterns: These are used where the no. of castings to be produced is small and pattern size is large. Advantages: Inexpensive Easily available in large quantities Easy to fabricate Light in weight They can be repaired easily Easy to obtain good surface finish

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Limitations: Susceptible to shrinkage and swelling Possess poor wear resistance Abraded easily by sand action Absorb moisture, consequently get wrapped Cannot withstand rough handling Life is very short Commonly used woods for making patterns: Teak Pine Mahogony Deodar etc..

2. Metal Patterns: : 

2. Metal Patterns: These are employed where large no. of castings have to be produced from same patterns. Advantages: Do not absorb moisture More stronger Possess much longer life Do not wrap, retain their shape Greater resistance to abrasion Accurate and smooth surface finish Good machinability

Slide 14: 

Limitations: Expensive Require a lot of machining for accuracy Not easily repaired Ferrous patterns get rusted Heavy weight , thus difficult to handle Commonly used metals for making patterns: Cast iron Aluminium and its alloys Steel White metal Brass etc..

3. Plastic Patterns: : 

3. Plastic Patterns: Advantages: Durable Provides a smooth surface Moisture resistant Does not involve any appreciable change in size or shape Light weight Good strength Wear and corrosion resistance Easy to make Abrasion resistance Good resistance to chemical attack Limitations: Plastic patterns are Fragile These are may not work well when subject to conditions of severe shock as in machine molding (jolting).

4. Plaster Patterns: : 

4. Plaster Patterns: Advantages: It can be easily worked by using wood working tools. Intricate shapes can be cast without any difficulty. It has high compressive strength. Plaster may be made out of Plaster of paris or Gypsum cement. Plaster mixture is poured into a mould made by a sweep pattern or a wooden master pattern, in order to obtain a Plaster pattern.

5. Wax patterns: : 

5. Wax patterns: Advantages: Provide very good surface finish. Impart high accuracy to castings. After being molded, the wax pattern is not taken out of the mould like other patterns; rather the mould is inverted and heated; the molten wax comes out and/or is evaporated. Thus there is no chance of the mould cavity getting damaged while removing the pattern. Wax patterns find applications in Investment casting process.

Slide 18: 

Types of patterns

Slide 19: 

Types of patterns depend upon the following factors: The shape and size of casting No. of castings required Method of moulding employed Anticipated difficulty of moulding operation

Types of Patterns: : 

Types of Patterns: Single piece pattern. Split piece pattern. Loose piece pattern. Match plate pattern. Sweep pattern. Gated pattern. Skeleton pattern Follow board pattern. Cope and Drag pattern.

1. Single piece (solid) pattern: : 

1. Single piece (solid) pattern: Made from one piece and does not contain loose pieces or joints. Inexpensive. Used for large size simple castings. Pattern is accommodated either in the cope or in the drag. Examples: Bodies of regular shapes. stuffling box of steam engine.

Fig: Single piece pattern : 

Fig: Single piece pattern

2. Split piece pattern: : 

2. Split piece pattern: Patterns of intricate shaped castings cannot be made in one piece because of the inherent difficulties associated with the molding operations (e.g. withdrawing pattern from mould). The upper and the lower parts of the split piece patterns are accommodated in the cope and drag portions of the mold respectively. Parting line of the pattern forms the parting line of the mould. Dowel pins are used for keeping the alignment between the two parts of the pattern. Examples: Hallow cylinder Taps and water stop cocks etc.,

3.Loose piece pattern: : 

3.Loose piece pattern: Certain patterns cannot be withdrawn once they are embedded in the molding sand. Such patterns are usually made with one or more loose pieces for facilitating from the molding box and are known as loose piece patterns. Loose parts or pieces remain attached with the main body of the pattern, with the help of dowel pins. The main body of the pattern is drawn first from the molding box and thereafter as soon as the loose parts are removed, the result is the mold cavity.

4. Match plate pattern: : 

4. Match plate pattern: It consists of a match plate, on either side of which each half of split patterns is fastened. A no. of different sized and shaped patterns may be mounted on one match plate. The match plate with the help of locator holes can be clamped with the drag. After the cope and drag have been rammed with the molding sand, the match plate pattern is removed from in between the cope and drag. Match plate patterns are normally used in machine molding. By using this we can eliminate mismatch of cope and drag cavities.

Fig: Match plate pattern : 

Fig: Match plate pattern

5. Sweep pattern: : 

5. Sweep pattern: A sweep pattern is just a form made on a wooden board which sweeps the shape of the casting into the sand all around the circumference. The sweep pattern rotates about the post. Once the mold is ready, Sweep pattern and the post can be removed. Sweep pattern avoids the necessity of making a full, large circular and costly three-dimensional pattern. Making a sweep pattern saves a lot of time and labour as compared to making a full pattern. A sweep pattern is preferred for producing large casting of circular sections and symmetrical shapes.

6. Gated pattern: : 

6. Gated pattern: The sections connecting different patterns serve as runner and gates. This facilitates filling of the mould with molten metal in a better manner and at the same time eliminates the time and labour otherwise consumed in cutting runners and gates. A gated pattern can manufacture many casting at one time and thus it is used in mass production systems. Gated patterns are employed for producing small castings.

castings : 

castings Gating system

7. Skeleton pattern: : 

7. Skeleton pattern: A skeleton pattern is the skeleton of a desired shape which may be S-bend pipe or a chute or something else. The skeleton frame is mounted on a metal base The skeleton is made from wooden strips, and is thus a wooden work. The skeleton pattern is filled with sand and is rammed. A strickle (board) assists in giving the desired shape to the sand and removes extra sand. Skeleton patterns are employed for producing a few large castings. A skeleton pattern is very economical, because it involves less material costs.

8. Follow board pattern: : 

8. Follow board pattern: A follow board is a wooden board and is used for supporting a pattern which is very thin and fragile and which may give way and collapse under pressure when the sand above the pattern is being rammed. With the follow board support under the weak pattern, the drag is rammed, and then the fallow board is with drawn, The rammed drag is inverted, cope is mounted on it and rammed. During this operation pattern remains over the inverted drag and get support from the rammed sand of the drag under it. Follow boards are also used for casting master patterns for many applications.

9. Cope and Drag patterns: : 

9. Cope and Drag patterns: A cope and drag pattern is another form of split pattern. Each half of the pattern is fixed to a separate metal/wood plate. Each half of the pattern(along the plate) is molded separately in a separate molding box by an independent molder or moulders. The two moulds of each half of the pattern are finally assembled and the mould is ready for pouring. Cope and drag patterns are used for producing big castings which as a whole cannot be conveniently handled by one moulder alone.

Fig: Cope and drag pattern : 

Fig: Cope and drag pattern

(a)Split pattern(b) Follow-board(c) Match Plate(d) Loose-piece(e) Sweep(f) Skeleton pattern : 

(a)Split pattern(b) Follow-board(c) Match Plate(d) Loose-piece(e) Sweep(f) Skeleton pattern

Slide 42: 

Pattern allowances

Pattern Allowances: : 

Pattern Allowances: A pattern is larger in size as compared to the final casting, because it carries certain allowances due to metallurgical and mechanical reasons for example, shrinkage allowance is the result of metallurgical phenomenon where as machining, draft, distortion, shake and other allowances are provided on the patterns because of mechanical reasons.

Types of Pattern Allowances: : 

Types of Pattern Allowances: The various pattern allowances are: shrinkage or contraction allowance. Machining or finish allowance. Draft of tapper allowances. Distortion or chamber allowance. Shake or rapping allowance.

1.Shrinkage Allowance: : 

1.Shrinkage Allowance: All most all cast metals shrink or contract volumetrically on cooling. The metal shrinkage is of two types: 1. Liquid Shrinkage: it refers to the reduction in volume when the metal changes from liquid state to solid state at the solidus temperature. To account for this shrinkage; riser, which feed the liquid metal to the casting, are provided in the mold. 2. Solid Shrinkage: it refers to the reduction in volume caused when metal loses temperature in solid state. To account for this, shrinkage allowance is provided on the patterns.

Slide 46: 

Almost all cast metals shrink or contract volumetrically after solidification and therefore the pattern to obtain a particular sized casting is made oversize by an amount equal to that of shrinkage or contraction. Different metals shrink at different rates because shrinkage is the property of the cast metal/alloy. The metal shrinkage depends upon: The cast metal or alloy. Pouring temp. of the metal/alloy. Casted dimensions(size). Casting design aspects. Molding conditions(i.e., mould materials and molding methods employed)

Slide 47: 

The contraction of metals/alloys is always volumetric, but the contraction allowances are always expressed in linear measures.

2. Machining Allowance: : 

2. Machining Allowance: A Casting is given an allowance for machining, because: Castings get oxidized in the mold and during heat treatment; scales etc., thus formed need to be removed. It is the intended to remove surface roughness and other imperfections from the castings. It is required to achieve exact casting dimensions. Surface finish is required on the casting.

Slide 49: 

How much extra metal or how much machining allowance should be provided, depends on the factors listed below: Nature of metals. Size and shape of casting. The type of machining operations to be employed for cleaning the casting. Casting conditions. Molding process employed

Machining Allowances of Various Metals: : 

Machining Allowances of Various Metals:

3. Draft or Taper Allowance: : 

3. Draft or Taper Allowance: It is given to all surfaces perpendicular to parting line. Draft allowance is given so that the pattern can be easily removed from the molding material tightly packed around it with out damaging the mould cavity. The amount of taper depends upon: Shape and size of pattern in the depth direction in contact with the mould cavity. Moulding methods. Mould materials. Draft allowance is imparted on internal as well as external surfaces; of course it is more on internal surfaces.

Slide 52: 

The taper provided by the pattern maker on all vertical surfaces of the pattern so that it can be removed from the sand without tearing away the sides of the sand mold and without excessive rapping by the molder. Figure 3 (a) shows a pattern having no draft allowance being removed from the pattern. In this case, till the pattern is completely lifted out, its sides will remain in contact with the walls of the mold, thus tending to break it.

Slide 53: 

Figure 3 (b) is an illustration of a pattern having proper draft allowance. Here, the moment the pattern lifting commences, all of its surfaces are well away from the sand surface. Thus the pattern can be removed without damaging the mold cavity.

Fig: taper in design : 

Fig: taper in design

4. Distortion or cambered allowance: : 

4. Distortion or cambered allowance: A casting will distort or wrap if : It is of irregular shape, All it parts do not shrink uniformly i.e., some parts shrinks while others are restricted from during so, It is u or v-shape, The arms possess unequal thickness, It has long, rangy arms as those of propeller strut for the ship, It is a long flat casting, One portion of the casting cools at a faster rate as compared to the other.

5. Shake allowance: : 

5. Shake allowance: A patter is shaken or rapped by striking the same with a wooden piece from side to side. This is done so that the pattern a little is loosened in the mold cavity and can be easily removed. In turn, therefore, rapping enlarges the mould cavity which results in a bigger sized casting. Hence, a –ve allowance is provided on the pattern i.e., the pattern dimensions are kept smaller in order to compensate the enlargement of mould cavity due to rapping. The magnitude of shake allowance can be reduced by increasing the tapper.

Slide 60: 

Pattern layout And Pattern construction

Pattern Layout: : 

Pattern Layout: Steps involved: Get the working drawing of the part for which the pattern is to be made. Make two views of the part drawing on a sheet, using a shrink rule. A shrink rule is modified form of an ordinary scale which has already taken care of shrinkage allowance for a particular metal to be cast. Add machining allowances as per the requirements. Depending upon the method of molding, provide the draft allowance.

Pattern Construction: : 

Pattern Construction: Study the pattern layout carefully and establish, Location of parting surface. No. of parts in which the pattern will be made. Using the various hand tools and pattern making machines fabricate the different parts of the pattern. Inspect the pattern as regards the alignment of different portions of the pattern and its dimensional accuracy. Fill wax in all the fillets in order to remove sharp corners. Give a shellac coatings(3 coats) to pattern. impart suitable colors to the pattern for identification purposes and for other informations.

Slide 63: 

Pattern colors

Pattern Colors: : 

Pattern Colors: Patterns are imparted certain colors and shades in order to: Identify quickly the main body of pattern and different parts of the pattern. Indicate the type of the metal to be cast. Identify core prints, loose pieces, etc., Visualise the surfaces to be machined, etc.

Slide 65: 

the patterns are normally painted with contrasting colors such that the mould maker would be able to understand the functions clearly. The color code used is, Red or orange on surface not to be finished and left as cast Yellow on surfaces to be machined Black on core prints for unmachined openings Yellow stripes on black on core prints for machinsed openings Green on seats of and for loose pieces and loose core prints Diagonal black strips with clear varnish on to strengthen the weak patterns or to shorten a casting.

Reference: : 

Reference: A text book of Production Technology Vol. I / O.P. Khanna / Dhanpat Rai Publications A text book of Production Technology (Manufacturing Processes) / P. C. Sharma / S. Chand & Company Ltd Manufacturing Technology (Second Edition) / P N Rao / Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd &

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