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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: HIV Presented by: Zeenat Bashir Department of Biotechnology Jamia Hamdard Slide 2: A Lentivirus – Affect Immune System. Slow Virus- Very “Slow Rate” of infection. Part of larger Group- Retrovirus. 1983- First identified. 1984- Clearly demonstrated to cause AIDS. From Ravanfar et al. (2009) At a Glance:- Slide 4: Genome Organization The ~9-kilobase genome of the HIV provirus contains 9 genes whose major functions are summarized here Slide 5: HIV Lifecycle Slide 6: Coreceptors for HIV entry CXCR4 (Fusin) Expressed on T-cells HIV gp120 interacts with both CD4 & CXCR4 Effect conformational changes in gp120/gp41 complex that allow membrane fusion CCR5 Expressed on macrophages Individuals with certain mutations in CCR5 are resistant to HIV infection Slide 7: Two Types :- HIV -1 and HIV-2 Both may be transmitted Sexually, Blood contact, through Mother Four Major Groups:- M , N, O, P O and N are very Rare 90% of HIV-1 infection belongs to Group M Group M :- Subtypes A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J and K. “Circulating Recombinant Forms" / CRF – Those recombinants that can survive and persist in population. E.g. CRF A/B. Types and Subtypes Slide 8: HIV Types and Subtypes Slide 9: Needle Infection Unsafe Intercourse Blood Transfusion Infected Mother to baby Transmission Slide 10: STAGE 1 : Primary HIV infection a few weeks short flu-like illness Process of Seroconversion STAGE 2 : Clinically asymptomatic stage an average of ten years HIV in peripheral blood very low viral load test The Different Stages of HIV Slide 11: STAGE 3 : Symptomatic HIV infection The lymph nodes and tissues become damaged or 'burnt out' because of the years of activity more T helper cell destruction The body fails to keep up with replacing the T helper cells that are lost STAGE 4 : Progression from HIV to AIDS Opportunistic infections Recurrent severe bacterial pneumonia The Different Stages of HIV cont… Slide 13: Antiretroviral treatment The main aim is to check the level of virus in the blood They are often referred to as : Antiretrovirals Anti-HIV or anti-AIDS drugs HIV antiviral drugs ARV Combination therapy Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) HIV-AIDS Treatment Slide 15: Attachment Inhibitors Slide 16: 1. Cyanovirin-N 11kda Protein 101 residues Isolated from: Cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum 2. PRO-542 3. TNX-355 Carole A. Bewley, Structure, 2001, 9, 931–940 Attachment Inhibitors Slide 17: Coreceptors Binding Inhibitors Slide 18: Nucleo(s)tide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors.(NRTI) First to be approved by FDA. Prevents the HIV viral RNA from converting to into double-stranded DNA. Non Nucleo(s)tide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTI) ReverseTranscriptase Inhibitors Slide 19: NRTI Slide 20: NNRTI Slide 21: Figure shows binding of Agenerase with Protease. Protease Inhibitor Slide 22: Approved Protease Inhibitors Slide 24: Continued.. HIDING PLACE OF HIV : HIDING PLACE OF HIV Progenitor blood cells- reservoir for HIV Reservoir resistant to immune response and HAART HIV targets HPCs before they give rise to blood cells Possible cure – push virus from latency to go into an active state while still patients on their drugs Eradication be only successful if all the reservoirs are identified and targeted Slide 26: Recent Research Scientists Solve Mystery About Why HIV Patients Are More Susceptible To TB Infection Harvard scientists develop new treatments to help people with HIV battle Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection. In their report, appearing in the July 2009 print issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology they describe how HIV interferes with the cellular and molecular mechanisms used by the lungs to fight TB infection. — ScienceDaily (July 10, 2009) Engineered Human Fusion Protein Inhibits HIV-1 Replication In 2004, Jeremy Luban and colleagues from the University of Geneva, Switzerland, reported that New World owl monkeys (Aotus genus) make a fusion protein – AoT5Cyp – that potently blocks HIV-1 infection. The human genome encodes the equivalent of the 2 components of AoT5Cyp (i.e., TRIM5 and cyclophilin A), but humans unfortunately do not make the T5Cyp fusion protein. — ScienceDaily (Sep. 8, 2009) Chemical in Bananas Identified as Potent Inhibitor of HIV Infection A potent new inhibitor of HIV, derived from bananas, may open the door to new treatments to prevent sexual transmission of HIV, according to a newly published University of Michigan Medical School study. — ScienceDaily (Mar. 16, 2010) Slide 27: Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore. www.jncasr.ac.in National HIV Reference Centre, Kolkata. www.icmr.nic.in National AIDS Research Institute, Pune. www.nari-icmr.res.in HIV/AIDS Research Institute in India Slide 28: AIDS Research Institute , University of California, San Fransisco. www.ari.ucsf.edu Bedford Stem Cell Research Foundation Founded 1996. www.bedfordresearch.org ACRIA- AIDS Community Research Initiative of America Founded December 1991. www.acria.org HIV/AIDS Research Institute Slide 29: 1. Korber, Muldoon, Theiler, Gao, Gupta, Lapedes, Hahn, Wolinsky & Bhattacharya. "Timing the Ancestor of the HIV-1 Pandemic Strains" Science, 2000: 288: p. 1789-1796 2. Worobey, Gemmel, Teuwen, Haselkorn, Kuntsman, Bunce, Muyembe, Kabongo, Kalengayi, Marck, Gilbert & Wolinsky. "Direct Evidence of Extensive Diversity of HIV-1 in Kinshasa by 1960" Nature, 2008: 455: p. 661-664 3. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 'Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection', accessed 6th July 2008 4. Structure of an HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein in complex with the CD4 receptor and a neutralizing human antibody, Kwong PD, Wyatt R, Robinson J, Sweet RW, Sodroski J, Hendrickson WA. NATURE 393 (6686): 648-659 JUN 18 1998 5. Side Effects of Anti-HIV Medication, Health Information for Patients, AIDS Info, October 2005 6. HIV Life Cycle and Anti Retroviral Drugs, Xiang Jing 7. Zappe H, Snell ME, Bossard MJ (2008). "PEGylation of cyanovirin-N, an entry inhibitor of HIV“. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 60 (1): 79–87. 8. Patel et al. Impaired M. tuberculosis-mediated apoptosis in alveolar macrophages from HIV persons: potential role of IL-10 and BCL-3. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 2009; 86 (1): 53 DOI. 9. Luban et al. Potent inhibition of HIV-1 by TRIM5-cyclophilin fusion proteins engineered from human components. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2009; DOI. 10. Swanson et al. A Lectin Isolated from Bananas Is a Potent Inhibitor of HIV Replication. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2010; 285 (12): 8646 DOI. References.. Slide 30: 1.http://www.avert.org 2.http://www.aids-info.ch 3. http://www.sciencedirect.com 4. http://www.nature.com Websites.. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.