Slide 1: HIV Presented by:
Department of Biotechnology
Jamia Hamdard Slide 2: A Lentivirus – Affect Immune System.
Slow Virus- Very “Slow Rate” of infection.
Part of larger Group- Retrovirus.
1983- First identified.
1984- Clearly demonstrated to cause AIDS. From Ravanfar et al. (2009) At a Glance:- Slide 4: Genome Organization The ~9-kilobase genome of the HIV provirus contains 9 genes whose major functions are summarized here Slide 5: HIV Lifecycle Slide 6: Coreceptors for HIV entry CXCR4 (Fusin)
Expressed on T-cells
HIV gp120 interacts with both CD4 & CXCR4
Effect conformational changes in gp120/gp41
complex that allow membrane fusion CCR5
Expressed on macrophages
Individuals with certain mutations in CCR5 are
resistant to HIV infection Slide 7: Two Types :- HIV -1 and HIV-2
Both may be transmitted Sexually, Blood contact, through Mother
Four Major Groups:- M , N, O, P
O and N are very Rare
90% of HIV-1 infection belongs to Group M
Group M :- Subtypes
A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J and K.
“Circulating Recombinant Forms" / CRF – Those recombinants that can survive and persist in population. E.g. CRF A/B. Types and Subtypes Slide 8: HIV Types and Subtypes Slide 9: Needle Infection
Infected Mother to baby Transmission Slide 10: STAGE 1 : Primary HIV infection
a few weeks
short flu-like illness
Process of Seroconversion
STAGE 2 : Clinically asymptomatic stage
an average of ten years
HIV in peripheral blood very low
viral load test The Different Stages of HIV Slide 11: STAGE 3 : Symptomatic HIV infection
The lymph nodes and tissues become damaged or 'burnt out' because of the years of activity
more T helper cell destruction
The body fails to keep up with replacing the T helper cells that are lost
STAGE 4 : Progression from HIV to AIDS
Recurrent severe bacterial pneumonia The Different Stages of HIV cont… Slide 13: Antiretroviral treatment
The main aim is to check the level of virus in the blood
They are often referred to as :
Anti-HIV or anti-AIDS drugs
HIV antiviral drugs
ARV Combination therapy
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) HIV-AIDS Treatment Slide 15: Attachment Inhibitors Slide 16: 1. Cyanovirin-N
3. TNX-355 Carole A. Bewley, Structure, 2001, 9, 931–940 Attachment Inhibitors Slide 17: Coreceptors Binding Inhibitors Slide 18: Nucleo(s)tide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors.(NRTI)
First to be approved by FDA.
Prevents the HIV viral RNA from converting to into double-stranded DNA. Non Nucleo(s)tide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTI) ReverseTranscriptase Inhibitors Slide 19: NRTI Slide 20: NNRTI Slide 21: Figure shows binding of Agenerase with Protease. Protease Inhibitor Slide 22: Approved Protease Inhibitors Slide 24: Continued.. HIDING PLACE OF HIV : HIDING PLACE OF HIV Progenitor blood cells- reservoir for HIV
Reservoir resistant to immune response and HAART
HIV targets HPCs before they give rise to blood cells
Possible cure – push virus from latency to go into an active state while still patients on their drugs
Eradication be only successful if all the reservoirs are identified and targeted Slide 26: Recent Research Scientists Solve Mystery About Why HIV Patients Are More Susceptible To TB Infection
Harvard scientists develop new treatments to help people with HIV battle Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection. In their report, appearing in the July 2009 print issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology they describe how HIV interferes with the cellular and molecular mechanisms used by the lungs to fight TB infection.
— ScienceDaily (July 10, 2009)
Engineered Human Fusion Protein Inhibits HIV-1 Replication
In 2004, Jeremy Luban and colleagues from the University of Geneva, Switzerland, reported that New World owl monkeys (Aotus genus) make a fusion protein – AoT5Cyp – that potently blocks HIV-1 infection. The human genome encodes the equivalent of the 2 components of AoT5Cyp (i.e., TRIM5 and cyclophilin A), but humans unfortunately do not make the T5Cyp fusion protein.
— ScienceDaily (Sep. 8, 2009)
Chemical in Bananas Identified as Potent Inhibitor of HIV Infection
A potent new inhibitor of HIV, derived from bananas, may open the door to new treatments to prevent sexual transmission of HIV, according to a newly published University of Michigan Medical School study.
— ScienceDaily (Mar. 16, 2010) Slide 27: Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore.
National HIV Reference Centre, Kolkata.
National AIDS Research Institute, Pune.
www.nari-icmr.res.in HIV/AIDS Research Institute in India Slide 28: AIDS Research Institute , University of California, San Fransisco.
Bedford Stem Cell Research Foundation
ACRIA- AIDS Community Research Initiative of America
Founded December 1991.
www.acria.org HIV/AIDS Research Institute Slide 29: 1. Korber, Muldoon, Theiler, Gao, Gupta, Lapedes, Hahn, Wolinsky & Bhattacharya. "Timing the Ancestor of the HIV-1 Pandemic Strains" Science, 2000: 288: p. 1789-1796
2. Worobey, Gemmel, Teuwen, Haselkorn, Kuntsman, Bunce, Muyembe, Kabongo, Kalengayi, Marck, Gilbert & Wolinsky. "Direct Evidence of Extensive Diversity of HIV-1 in Kinshasa by 1960" Nature, 2008: 455: p. 661-664
3. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 'Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection', accessed 6th July 2008
4. Structure of an HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein in complex with the CD4 receptor and a neutralizing human antibody, Kwong PD, Wyatt R, Robinson J, Sweet RW, Sodroski J, Hendrickson WA. NATURE 393 (6686): 648-659 JUN 18 1998
5. Side Effects of Anti-HIV Medication, Health Information for Patients, AIDS Info, October 2005
6. HIV Life Cycle and Anti Retroviral Drugs, Xiang Jing
7. Zappe H, Snell ME, Bossard MJ (2008). "PEGylation of cyanovirin-N, an entry inhibitor of HIV“. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 60 (1): 79–87.
8. Patel et al. Impaired M. tuberculosis-mediated apoptosis in alveolar macrophages from HIV persons: potential role of IL-10 and BCL-3. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 2009; 86 (1): 53 DOI.
9. Luban et al. Potent inhibition of HIV-1 by TRIM5-cyclophilin fusion proteins engineered from human components. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2009; DOI.
10. Swanson et al. A Lectin Isolated from Bananas Is a Potent Inhibitor of HIV Replication. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2010; 285 (12): 8646 DOI. References.. Slide 30: 1.http://www.avert.org
4. http://www.nature.com Websites..