1207ch03

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Chapter 3Special-Purpose Diodes : 

Chapter 3Special-Purpose Diodes

Objectives : 

Objectives Describe the characteristics of a zener diode and analyze its operation Explain how a zener is used in voltage regulation and limiting Describe the varactor diode and its variable capacitance characteristics Discuss the operation and characteristics of LEDs and photodiodes Discuss the basic characteristics of the current regulator diode, the pin diode, the step-recovery diode, the tunnel diode, and the laser diode.

Introduction : 

Introduction The basic function of zener diode is to maintain a specific voltage across its terminals within given limits of line or load change. Typically it is used for providing a stable reference voltage for use in power supplies and other equipment. This particular zener circuit will work to maintain 10 V across the load. RLoad

Zener Diodes – Operating Range : 

Zener Diodes – Operating Range A zener diode is much like a normal diode, the exception being is that it is placed in the circuit in reverse bias and operates in reverse breakdown. This typical characteristic curve illustrates the operating range for a zener. Note that its forward characteristics are just like a normal diode. Operating range

Zener Diodes – Regulation Ranges : 

Zener Diodes – Regulation Ranges The zener diode’s breakdown characteristics are determined by the doping process. Low voltage zeners (>5V), operate in the zener breakdown range. Those designed to operate <5 V operate mostly in avalanche breakdown range. Zeners are available with voltage breakdowns of 1.8 V to 200 V. This curve illustrates the minimum and maximum ranges of current operation that the zener can effectively maintain its voltage. Zener zone Diode zone Avalanche zone 5V.

Zener Diodes – Breakdown Characteristics : 

Zener Diodes – Breakdown Characteristics Note very small reverse current (before “knee”). Breakdown occurs @ knee. Breakdown Characteristics: VZ remains near constant VZ provides: -Reference voltage -Voltage regulation IZ escalates rapidly IZMAX is achieved quickly Exceeding IZMAX is fatal

Zener Diodes – Voltage Regulation : 

Zener Diodes – Voltage Regulation Regulation occurs between: VZK - knee voltage to VZM - Imax

Zener Diodes – Equivalent Circuit : 

Zener Diodes – Equivalent Circuit Ideal Zener exhibits a constant voltage, regardless of current draw. Ideal Zener exhibits no resistance characteristics.

Zener Diodes – Equivalent Circuit : 

Zener Diodes – Equivalent Circuit Zener exhibits a near constant voltage, varied by current draw through the series resistance ZZ. As Iz increases, Vz also increases.

Zener Diodes – Characteristic Curve : 

Zener Diodes – Characteristic Curve Vz results from Iz. Iz thru Zz produce this. See Ex. 3-2

Zener Diodes : 

Zener Diodes Zener diodes have given characteristics such as; Temperature coefficients – describes the % Vz for Temp (0C) Vz = Vz x T0C x T  %/oC See Ex.3-3 (Vz) Power ratings – the zener incurs power dissipation based on Iz and Zz  P = I2Z Power derating factor specifies the reduced power rating for device operating temperatures in excess of the “rated maximum temperature”. PD(derated) = PD(max) – (mW/0C)T  mW The data sheet provides this information. See Ex.3-4 (%/oC)

Zener Diode – Data Sheet : 

Zener Diode – Data Sheet Power ratings Temperature ratings Vz nominal Impedance Power derating curves Temperature coefficients Zz - Zener impedance

Zener Diode - Applications : 

Zener Diode - Applications Regulation In this simple illustration of zener regulation circuit, the zener diode will “adjust” its impedance based on varying input voltages. Zener current will increase or decrease directly with voltage input changes. The zener current, Iz, will vary to maintain a constant Vz. Note: The zener has a finite range of current operation. VZener remains constant

Zener Diode - Applications : 

Zener Diode - Applications Regulation In this simple illustration of zener regulation circuit, the zener diode will “adjust” its impedance based on varying input voltages and loads (RL) to be able to maintain its designated zener voltage. Zener current will increase or decrease directly with voltage input changes. The zener current will increase or decrease inversely with varying loads. Again, the zener has a finite range of operation. VZener remains constant See Ex. 3-5

Zener Diode - Applications : 

Zener Diode - Applications Vin IZ Vout Vin IZ Vout

Zener Diode - Applications : 

Zener Diode - Applications See Ex. 3-5 See Ex. 3-6 See Ex. 3-7 Calculate VZRegulate: (pg.118) VinMIN = VR + VZ = 55mV + 10V = 10.055V. VR = IZR = (100mA)(220) = 22V. Vin(max) = 22V + 10V = 32V VReg is ≈10V to 32V. 1N4740 PDMAX = 1W. VZ = 10V. IZK = 0.25mA to IZM = 100mA VRmin = IZKR= .25mA x 220 = 55mV VRmax = IZM = 100mA x 220 = 22V. **

Zener Limiting : 

Zener Limiting Zener diodes can used for limiting just as normal diodes. Recall in previous chapter studies about limiters. The difference to consider for a zener limiter is its zener breakdown characteristics. See Ex.3-8

Varactor Diodes : 

Varactor Diodes A varactor diode is best explained as a variable capacitor. Think of the depletion region as a variable dielectric. The diode is placed in reverse bias. The dielectric is “adjusted” by reverse bias voltage changes.

Varactor Diodes : 

Varactor Diodes The varactor diode can be useful in filter circuits as the adjustable component for resonance frequency selection. Varactor Bias adjust

Varactor Diodes : 

Varactor Diodes Capacitance Tolerance Range - This is the equivalent of the value tolerance range of a resistor. ie: 1N5148 – Nominal value = 47pFd - Tolerance range is 42.3pFd to 51.7pFd Tuning Ratio (TR) or (Capacitance Ratio) Refers to Rangeability (value @ Bias Vmax vs Bias Vmin) Vmin is 4V bias (C4) (for the 1N5139, C4 = 6.8pFd) Vmax is 60V bias (C60) (for the 1n5139, C60 = 2.3pFd) For the 1N5139, TR = 2.9 Quality Factor (Q) describes energy loss in the device. High Q desireable) Temperature Coefficient - ∆Capacitance vs ∆Temp See pg.127 See Ex.3-9

Resonant Band-pass Filter w/ Varactor Diode : 

Resonant Band-pass Filter w/ Varactor Diode Series Resonant Tank Parallel Resonant Tank Varactor Varactor Bias VBIAS = 2.9V to 29V CVaractor = 17pF to 55pF Resonant Frequency Range: fr = 679kHz to 1.22MHz. 31.6V VR = 2.85 to 28.7V See Related Problem pg.130

Optical Diodes : 

Optical Diodes The light-emitting diode (LED) emits photons as visible light. Its purpose is for indication and other intelligible displays. Various impurities are added during the doping process to vary the color output.

Optical Diodes : 

Optical Diodes Electroluminescence, the process of emitting photons from a parent material (substrate), is the basis for LEDs. Colors result from the choice of substrate material and the resulting wavelength; Todays LEDs (green,red, yellow) are based on indium gallium aluminum phosphide Blue uses silicon carbide or gallium nitride IR (infrared) – GaAs (gallium arsenide) LED Biasing: 1.2V to 3.2V is typical. Note: Some newer LED’s run at higher voltages and emit immense light energy. Applications: Traffic signals Outdoor video screens Runway markers A strong +bias encourages conduction-band electrons in the N-material to leap the junction and recombine with available holes releasing light and heat.

LED – Spectral Curves : 

LED – Spectral Curves Note the wavelengths of the various colors and infrared. Note lead designations to the right.

LED Datasheet – MLED81 Infrared LED : 

LED Datasheet – MLED81 Infrared LED

LED Datasheet – MLED81 : 

LED Datasheet – MLED81

Optical Diodes : 

Optical Diodes The seven segment display is an example of LEDs use for display of decimal digits. See “Light Emitting Diodes.pdf”

Photodiodes : 

Photodiodes Unlike LED’s, photodiodes receive light rather than produce light. The photodiode varies it’s current in response to the amount of light that strikes it. It is placed in the circuit in reverse bias. As with most diodes, no current flows when in reverse bias, but when light strikes the exposed junction through a tiny window, reverse current increases proportional to light intensity (irradiance). Note: Photodiodes all exhibit a “reverse leakage current” which appears as an inverse variable resistance. Irradiance causes the device to exhibit a reduction in the variable resistance characteristic.

Photodiodes : 

Photodiodes You have this one in your kit.

Photodiodes – MRD821 : 

Photodiodes – MRD821

Photodiodes – MRD821 : 

Photodiodes – MRD821

Other Diode Types : 

Other Diode Types Current regulator diodes (constant current diodes) keep a constant current value over a specified range of forward bias voltages ranging from about 1.5 V to 6 V. This device exhibits very high impedances. Operating Range

Other Diode Types : 

Other Diode Types The Schottky diode’s (hot-carrier diodes) significant characteristic is its fast switching speed. This is useful for high frequencies and digital applications. It is not a typical diode in that it does not have a p-n junction. Instead, it consists of a lightly-doped n-material and heavily-doped (conduction-band electrons) metal bounded together. Response is very quick…high speed digital communications. Lightly doped Heavily doped (conduction-band electrons)

Other Diode Types : 

Other Diode Types The pin diode is also used in mostly microwave frequency applications. Its variable forward series resistance characteristic is used for attenuation, modulation, and switching. In reverse bias it exhibits a nearly constant capacitance. Also used in attentuators. Fixed Capacitance Current-controlled Resistance

Other Diode Types : 

Other Diode Types The step-recovery diode is also used for fast switching applications. This is achieved by reduced doping near the junction. The diode recovers very quickly, making it useful in high-frequency (VHF) applications.

Other Diode Types : 

Other Diode Types The tunnel diode exhibits negative resistance. It will actually conduct well with low forward bias. With further increases in bias it reaches the negative resistance range where current will actually go down. This is achieved by heavily-doped p and n materials that create a very thin depletion region which permits electrons to “tunnel” thru the barrier region. Germanium or Gallium Tank circuits oscillate but “die out” due to the internal resistance. A tunnel diode will provide “negative resistance” that overcomes the loses and maintains the oscillations.

Tunnel Diodes : 

Tunnel Diodes Tank circuits oscillate but “die out” due to the internal resistance. A tunnel diode will provide “negative resistance” that overcomes the loses and maintains the oscillations.

Other Diode Types : 

Other Diode Types The laser diode (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) produces a monochromatic (single color) “coherent” light. Laser diodes in conjunction with photodiodes are used to retrieve data from compact discs. Forward bias the diode and electrons move thru the junction, recombination occurs (as ordinary). Recombinations result in photon release, causing a chain reaction of releases and avalanching photons which form an intense laser beam.

Troubleshooting : 

Troubleshooting Although precise power supplies typically use IC type regulators, zener diodes can be used alone as a voltage regulator. As with all troubleshooting techniques we must know what is normal. A properly functioning zener will work to maintain the output voltage within certain limits despite changes in load.

Troubleshooting : 

Troubleshooting With an open zener diode, the full unregulated voltage will be present at the output without a load. In some cases with full or partial loading an open zener could remain undetected.

Troubleshooting : 

Troubleshooting With excessive zener impedance the voltage would be higher than normal but less than the full unregulated output.

Summary : 

Summary The zener diode operates in reverse breakdown. A zener diode maintains a nearly constant voltage across its terminals over a specified range of currents. Line regulation is the maintenance of a specific voltage with changing input voltages. Load regulation is the maintenance of a specific voltage for different loads. There are other diode types used for specific RF purposes such as varactor diodes (variable capacitance), Schottky diodes (high speed switching), and PIN diodes (microwave attenuation and switching).

Summary : 

Summary Light emitting diodes (LED) emit either infrared or visible light when forward-biased. Photodiodes exhibit an increase in reverse current with light intensity. The laser diode emits a monochromatic light

authorStream Live Help