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The following are prohibited by law: * any public performance or display, including transmission of any over a network; * preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; * any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Slide 2: Spousal Abuse Spousal abuse is defined as an intentional act or series of acts that cause injury to the spouse These acts may be physical, emotional, or sexual Spouse is gender neutral and therefore the abuse may occur to a man or woman Spouse includes those who are married, cohabitating, or involved in a serious relationship Also includes those who are separated and living apart from their former spouses Extent of the Problem : Extent of the Problem The National Violence Against Women Survey indicated that approximately 7.7% of all the female respondents have been raped by their intimate partner sometime in their life. Using the U.S. Census population, this translates into nearly 7.8 million women who have been raped by their intimate partner during their life. The study also found that 22.1 percent of all female respondents had been physically assaulted by their partner at some time. Dynamics of Battering : Dynamics of Battering Cycle Theory of Violence sets forth the dynamics of battering in spousal abuse. Three distinct phases Tension-building Phase Explosion or Acute Battering Phase Calm, Loving Respite Phase Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Slide 5: Battered Woman Syndrome theorizes that victims of spousal abuse gradually become immobilized by fear and believe they have no other options. As a result, these women stay in the abusive relationships coping the best they can. Involves a woman who has been, on at least two occasions, the victim of physical, sexual, or serious psychological abuse by a man with whom she has an intimate relationship. It is a pattern of psychological symptoms that develop after somebody has lived in a battering relationship. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Slide 6: Stockholm Syndrome is a phenomenon that occurs when persons who are held as hostages, captives, or prisoners of war begin to identify with the captors Traumatic Bonding Theory explains why battered women stay in abusive relationships. When a woman finally leaves an abusive partner, her immediate fears begin to diminish and her hidden attachment to her abuser begins to manifest itself. Emotionally drained and vulnerable, the women becomes susceptible to her partner’s loving contrite pressure to return. As her fears lessen and the needs previously provided by her partner increase, she may decide to give him another chance Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Theories on Causes of Spousal Abuse : Theories on Causes of Spousal Abuse Social Stress Power Dependency Alcohol Pregnancy Marriage Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Criminal Justice Response : The Criminal Justice Response Factors Affecting Police Response Arrest of Abusers The Minneapolis Experiment Other Replications Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Factors Affecting Police Response : Factors Affecting Police Response Call screening Beliefs regarding financial hardship on the family in the event of an arrest The family argument theory The classification of spousal assault as a misdemeanor The victim’s preference not to arrest Perceived danger to the police in domestic violence situations Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Arrest of Abusers : Arrest of Abusers In recent years, victims of family violence have turned to the courts in an attempt to require law enforcement departments to provide effective intervention and protection against spousal assault. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Minneapolis Experiment : The Minneapolis Experiment Study was the first controlled evaluation of the effect of arrest on individuals who commit assaultive types of crimes against their spouses. Of the 314 cases 10% of the arrested suspects committed a subsequent offense 24% of the suspects who were sent from the home repeated acts of violence against their spouses 19% of the suspects who were advised by the officers committed another offense Advocates of mandatory arrest and other sanctions were finally able to find legislative support for reform of domestic violence statutes Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Other Replications : Other Replications Indications that arrest does in fact deter either short-term or long-term spousal assault Metro-Dade Experiment Colorado Springs Experiment Milwaukee Experiment Indications that arrest does not deter future violence Omaha Experiment Charlotte Experiment Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Slide 13: Chapter Ten Child Victims This multimedia presentation and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: * any public performance or display, including transmission of any over a network; * preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; * any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Types of Child Abuse : Types of Child Abuse Physical child abuse – any act which results in a nonaccidental physical injury by a person who has care, custody, or control of a child Child neglect – the negligent treatment or maltreatment of a child by a parent or a caretaker under circumstances indicating harm or threatened harm to the child’s health or welfare Child sexual abuse – sexual exploitation or sexual activities with children under circumstances which indicate that the child’s health or welfare is harmed or threatened Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Slide 15: O_ER_T_O_ Painless OPERATION Slide 16: Exterminate Term X Slide 17: Jury jury jury jury Forgeries Slide 18: AG Agony E Extent of the Problem : Extent of the Problem Physical Child Abuse Estimated 1,553,800 children were abused or neglected in 1993 Estimated 1,400 child fatalities in 2002 Child Neglect Estimated 515,800 cases of child neglect in 2000 Child Sexual Abuse Estimated 150,000 substantiated cases in 1992 Dropped to estimated 89,500 substantiated cases in 2000 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Child Fatality Review Teams : Child Fatality Review Teams Composed of a variety of professionals from different backgrounds who review child fatalities Normally include the Medical Examiner, a pediatrician, a representative from the District Attorneys Office, law enforcement and child protective services members, and other necessary agencies as appropriate Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Cycle of Violence Theory : Cycle of Violence Theory Asserts that violent behavior is learned within the family and bequeathed from one generation to the next. Cycle of Violence and Family Violence Cycle of Violence and Aggression Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Theories of Physical Child Abuse : Theories of Physical Child Abuse Psychopathological Model Stresses the characteristics of the abuser as the primary cause of abuse. The abuser’s personality predisposes the abuser to injure the child Interactional Model Views child abuse as a result of a dysfunctional system Environmental-Sociological-Cultural Model Views child abuse as a result of stresses in society that are the primary causes of abuse Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Theories of Child Neglect : Theories of Child Neglect Economic Theory Suggests that neglect is caused by stress as a result of living in poverty Ecological Theory Views the family behavior and neglect as a result of social causes Personalistic Theory Attributes child neglect to individual personality characteristics of the caretakers Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Four Preconditions Model of Sexual Abuse : The Four Preconditions Model of Sexual Abuse Establishes preconditions that create a personal and social context for expressing sexually abusive behavior Precondition I: Motivation to Abuse Sexually Precondition II: Overcoming Internal Inhibitors Precondition III: Factors Predisposing to Overcome External Inhibitors Precondition IV: Factors Predisposing to Overcome the Child’s Resistance Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Special Types of Child Abuse : Special Types of Child Abuse Sibling Abuse Any form of physical, mental, or sexual abuse inflicted by one child in a family unit upon another Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy A psychiatric disorder whereby individuals intentionally produce physical symptoms of illness in their children Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Slide 26: Ritual Abuse A brutal form of abuse of children consisting of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse, and involving the use of rituals. Ritual does not necessarily mean satanic. However, most survivors state that they were ritually abused as part of satanic worship for the purpose of indoctrinating them into satanic beliefs and practices. Ritual abuse rarely consists of a single episode. It usually involves repeated abuse over an extended period of time. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Agenda : Agenda 1. Agenda Item 2. Agenda Item 3. Agenda Item 4. Agenda Item Cycle Diagram : Cycle Diagram Text Text Text Text Text Cycle name Add Your Text Progress Diagram : Progress Diagram Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Block Diagram : Block Diagram TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT Table : Table 3-D Pie Chart : 3-D Pie Chart TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT Marketing Diagram : Marketing Diagram Title TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.