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The New Face of State and Local Government : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman. The New Face of State and Local Government Chapter 21 Edwards, Wattenberg, and Lineberry Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy Fourteenth Edition

Introduction : 

Introduction Subnational Governments: State and local governments have been characterized by revitalization and diversity since the 1960’s. States have become more active players in policymaking. States still remain diverse in their populations and policies.

State Constitutions : 

State Constitutions In General Each state has its own unique constitution. They are subordinate to the U.S. Constitution. State constitutions have more detail about specific policies. Specific interests work to protect their issues in the constitutions since it is harder to amend them.

State Constitutions : 

State Constitutions

State Constitutions : 

State Constitutions Amending State Constitutions Few states rewrite their constitutions. States often use the “cut and paste” method of changing their constitutions by only updating a few sections of the document at a time. In general, a state’s legislature proposes a constitutional amendment and then it is put to a vote in an election. Some states allow citizen initiatives.

State Elections : 

State Elections Gubernatorial Elections Elections are becoming more centered on the candidates, like presidential elections. May lead to divided government at state level Today, elections are generally held in even numbered, non-presidential election years so the governor is the main candidate. The elections are expensive and candidates raise most of the money themselves.

State Elections : 

State Elections State Legislative Elections State legislators have the smallest constituencies, yet are the least well known. State districts had to be redrawn after Baker v. Carr (1962) specified “one person, one vote” in state elections. Campaigns are getting more expensive and more candidate centered.

State Elections : 

State Elections State Legislative Elections Partisan Competition, Legislative Turnovers, and Term Limits Partisan competition is close in most states, often resulting in divided government. There is generally high turnover in state legislatures which some think leads to new policy ideas. Some states have decided to “force” turnover by using terms limits.

State Elections : 

State Elections

State Elections : 

State Elections The Changing Face of State Elected Officials The old rule of white, male elected leaders is going away as women and minorities are elected as governors and legislators. 8 female state governors in 2008 Progress has been slow in recent years in part because of women running for federal offices.

State Elections : 

State Elections

Governors and theExecutive Branch : 

Governors and theExecutive Branch The Job of Governor Expected to fulfill many duties, some formal, some not There is a wide diversity in the amount of formal powers each governor has. 42 governors have a line-item veto—veto only parts of a bill Today’s governors use “personal powers” to help accomplish their policy goals. Public support, character, and leadership style

Governors and theExecutive Branch : 

Governors and theExecutive Branch

Governors and theExecutive Branch : 

Governors and theExecutive Branch Other Executive Officers Many other state executives are elected separately from the governor. Major state executives include: Lieutenant Governor—second-highest executive official in state governments Attorney General—state’s legal counsel Treasurer—manager of state’s bank accounts Secretary of State—in charge of elections and record-keeping Auditor—financial comptroller

State Legislatures : 

State Legislatures General Information: Generally operate like Congress Have become more professional: longer sessions—44 state legislatures have annual sessions higher salaries more staff But others argue that it takes away from the “citizen legislature” favored by many

State Legislatures : 

State Legislatures

State Court Systems : 

State Court Systems State Court Organization Many state court systems are confusing with many specialized courts. There have been efforts to consolidate the number and type of courts. Many states have established intermediate courts of appeal to take some of the workload off the state’s supreme court.

State Court Systems : 

State Court Systems

State Court Systems : 

State Court Systems Selecting Judges States use a variety of methods in choosing judges. Election (both partisan and non partisan) Appointment (mostly with confirmation) Relatively new method is the merit plan Governor appoints one of several screened judges. After a term, judge faces the voters in a retention election—17 states use this

State Court Systems : 

State Court Systems

Direct Democracy : 

Direct Democracy Direct democracy: government controlled directly by the citizens Methods of citizen control of the Government: Initiative: proposed changes to laws be put on the ballot if enough signatures are collected Referendum: voters approve or disapprove state legislation Recall: voters may vote someone out of office

Direct Democracy : 

Direct Democracy

State and Local Government Relations : 

State and Local Government Relations Interrelationship between states and local governments is not as clearly defined as that between federal and state governments Dillon’s Rule: Local governments have only those powers and duties explicitly given to them by the state. Some states allow home rule where a local government adopts a charter (like a constitution) to govern its activities.

Local Governments : 

Local Governments Types of Local Government Counties Townships Municipalities Town meeting: form of direct democracy where citizens gather once a year to make policy; rarely used Mayor-Council Council-Manager (city manager): an official appointed by the city council who is responsible for implementing and administering the council’s actions Commission School Districts Special Districts

Local Governments : 

Local Governments

Local Governments : 

Local Governments

Local Governments : 

Local Governments

Local Governments : 

Local Governments Fragmentation, Cooperation, and Competition Not much cooperation among local governments in a state to solve problems Regional governments are able to coordinate some activities in some areas. Differences in opinion on needs and competition make cooperation difficult. Council of Governments (COGs) can coordinate some activities as well.

State and Local Finance Policy : 

State and Local Finance Policy

Understanding State and Local Governments : 

Understanding State and Local Governments Democracy at the Subnational Level States have been willing to let local governments handle local problems and operate very openly. There are problems with lack of voter participation and coordination among local governments as well as competition for economic development.

Understanding State and Local Governments : 

Understanding State and Local Governments The Scope of Subnational Government State and local governments are growing faster than the national government. Some states have sunset legislation that calls for the reviewing of agencies to see if their programs are still needed. Some local governments are better at policymaking than their states and have taken the lead in solving problems.

Summary : 

Summary State and local government are responsible for policies with which we are most familiar—policy, education, trash collection. State governments are similar to, but vastly different from federal government. Local governments are established by states to handle truly local policy issues.

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