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Slide 1: 

Jackson's Native-American Policy

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Indian Removal Jackson’s Goal? Expansion into the southwest for southern planters 1830: Indian Removal Act 5 Civilized Tribes: (forced removal) Cherokee Creek Choctaw Chickasaw Seminole Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831) “domestic dependent nation” Worcester v. GA (1832) Cherokee law is sovereign and Georgia law does not apply in Cherokee nation. Jackson: John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!

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The Court ruled that the state of Georgia could not seize the lands of a "domestic, dependent nation" which possessed some sovereignty. The Cherokees were NOT a foreign nation as described in the Constitution. "The conditions of the Indians in relation to the United States is perhaps unlike that of any two people in existence," Chief Justice John Marshall wrote, "their relation to the United States resembles that of a ward to his guardian. (they were a) domestic dependent nation." Established a "trust relationship" with the tribes directly under federal authority. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831): John Marshall

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Established tribal autonomy (self-governing state, community, or group within their boundaries), The tribes were “distinct political communities, having territorial boundaries within which their authority is exclusive (private).” The Court ruled that the laws of Georgia had not force within the territorial boundaries of the Cherokee Nation. Worcester v. Georgia (1832): John Marshall

trail 3 : 

In 1829, Andrew Jackson reflected on the condition of the Indians, and on Indian-white relations. Jackson’s Indian Removal Act 1831. “Our conduct toward these people is deeply interesting to our national character….Our ancestors found them the uncontrolled possessors of these vast regions. By persuasion and force they have been made to retire from river to river and from mountain to mountain, until some of the tribes have become extinct and others have left but remnants to preserve for awhile their once terrible names. TRAIL OF TEARS trail 3

trail 3 : 

Surrounded by the whites with their arts of civilization, which by destroying the resources of the savage doom him to weakness and decay, the fate of the Mohegan, Narragansett, and the Delaware is fast overtaking the Choctaw, the Cherokee, and the Creek. That this fate surely awaits them if they remain within the limits of the States does not admit of a doubt. Humanity and national honor demand that every effort should be made to avert such a calamity. TRAIL OF TEARS trail 3

Division in the Cherokee Nation : 

Division in the Cherokee Nation Cherokee went from being a peaceful nation to a group of people who were divided. Some Cherokee in cooperation with the US government illegally signed the Treaty of New Echota US government would give land and goods to the Cherokee who left their land peacefully. Georgia and the U.S. government used the treaty as justification to force almost all of the 17,000 Cherokees from their southeastern homeland. TRAIL OF TEARS

Trial of tears : 

Trial of tears GROWTH OF SLAVERY

Trial of tears : 

Trial of tears GROWTH OF SLAVERY

Trial of tears : 

Trial of tears GROWTH OF SLAVERY

Trial of tears : 

Trial of tears

trail 1 : 

we have preaching or prayer meeting every night while on the march, and you may well imagine that under the peculiar circumstances of the case, among those sublime mountains and in the deep forest with the thunder often roaring in the distance, that nothing could be more solemn and impressive. And I always looked on with awe, lest their prayers which I felt... ascending to Heaven and calling for justice to Him who alone can & will grant it... [might] fall upon my guilty head as one of the instruments of oppression. Lt. L.B. Webster TRAIL OF TEARS 1838 TO 1839 trail 1 We were eight days in making the journey (80 miles), and it was pitiful to behold the women & children who suffered exceedingly as they were all obliged to walk, with the exception of the sick.... I had three regular ministers of the gospel in my party, and

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Long time we travel on way to new land. People feel bad when they leave old nation. Women cry and make sad wails. Children cry and many men cry, and all look sad like when friends die, but they say nothing and just put heads down and keep on go towards West. Many days pass and people die very much. We bury close by Trail. Survivor of the Trail of Tears TRAIL OF TEARS 1838 TO 1839 trail 2

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The Tariff and Nullification Issue

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NULLIFICATION CRISIS John C. Calhoun,former VP underJackson, USSenator from South Carolina PresidentJackson

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1830 Webster: Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable. Jackson: Our Federal Union—it must be preserved. Calhoun: The Union, next to our liberty, most dear.

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1832 Tariff Conflict 1828 --> “Tariff of Abomination” Tariff of 1828 1832 --> new tariff South Carolina’s reaction? Jackson’s response? Clay’s “Compromise” Tariff?

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Tariff of 1828 The constitutional doctrine of implied powers was used to justify higher protective tariffs Protective tariff would be raised to 45% on a dollar…. South upset with this b/c they saw the US Govt. favoring the North and industry… Feared the US Govt. would take away slavery NULLIFICATION CRISIS

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JACKSON VS CALHOUN John C. Calhoun, resigns as VP because of the Eaton Affair and Tariff of 1828 Tariff of Abomination Calhoun becomes a US Senator from South Carolina and defends slavery and state’s rights. Calhoun threatened secession (leaving the US) if tariff was not lowered. Calhoun believed in the doctrine of nullification or each state had the right to decide whether to obey a federal law or to declare it null and void South Carolina Exposition---Compact theory

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JACKSON VS CALHOUN Jackson persuaded Congress to pass a Force Bill giving the president authority to take military action in SC Jackson issued a Proclamation to the People of SC stating that nullification and disunion were treason Jackson also suggested that Congress lower the tariff

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WEBSTER VS HAYNE DEBATE Daniel Webster of Massachusetts debated Robert Hayne of SC on the nature of the federal Union under the Constitution in 1830 Webster attacked the idea that any state could defy or leave the Union Hayne argued that the states had the right to nullify federal laws believed to be unconstitutional

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JACKSON VS CALHOUN The Nullification Crisis Compromise of 1833 Henry Clay proposes a compromise Tariffs were gradually lowered---25% over 10 years South Carolina dropped nullification South lost its dominance to North and West Jackson preserved the Union Southerners believed they were becoming a permanent minority As that feeling of isolation grew, it was not nullification but the threat of secession that ultimately became the South’s primary weapon.

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Renewing the Charter of the 1st National Bank

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The Bank of the United States, although privately owned, received federal deposits and attempted to serve a public purpose by cushioning the ups and downs of the national economy THE BANK WAR

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The National Bank Debate NicholasBiddle PresidentJackson

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Biddle v Jackson Jackson believed BUS was too powerful because it was privately owned. Considered it unconstitutional regardless of Marshall’s McCulloch vs. Maryland THE BANK WAR Should be controlled more by government and the people because it was corrupt. Nicholas Biddle, President of the BUS, Henry Clay and Daniel Webster supported the BUS

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The Cartoon from the 1832 presidential cartoon depicts Jackson as a cat with “Veto” written on his tail clearing Uncle Sam’s barn of bank and clay rats THE BANK WAR In 1832, an election year, Henry Clay decided to challenge Jackson on the bank issue by persuading a majority in Congress to pass a bank recharter bill Jackson vetoed this bill Jackson believed that the Bank of the United States was unconstitutional

King Andrew : 

KING ANDREW The Bank War inspired numerous cartoons. Opponents referred to him as King Andrew because used the veto more than any president to that time…..12 times Destroyed the BUS in 1832 with the veto. Picture shows President Jackson holding a veto in his left hand and scepter in his right. US Constitution is torn up and Jackson is standing on it… King Andrew

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THE BANK WAR An overwhelming majority of voters approved of Jackson’s veto Jackson won reelection with more than ¾ of the electoral vote The 1832 Election

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A triumphant Jackson holds his order to remove government deposits from the bank as the bank crumbles and a host of demonic characters scurry from its ruins. THE BANK WAR

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Opposition to the 2nd B.U.S. “Soft”(paper) $ “Hard”(specie) $ state bankers feltit restrained theirbanks from issuingbank notes freely. supported rapid economic growth & speculation. felt that coin was the only safecurrency. didn’t like any bankthat issued banknotes. suspicious of expansion &speculation.

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The “Monster” Is Destroyed! “pet banks” or wildcat banks 1832: Jackson vetoed the extension of the 2nd National Bank of the United States. 1836: the charter expired. 1841: the bank went bankrupt!

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The Specie Circular (1936) “wildcat banks.” buy future federalland only with gold orsilver. Jackson’s goal?

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Results of the Specie Circular Banknotes loose their value. Land sales plummeted. Credit not available. Businesses began to fail. Unemployment rose. The Panic of 1837!

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Accomplishments Enlarged the power of the presidency “The President is the direct representative of the American people” Only responsible to the people, not Congress Converted the veto into an effective presidential power The veto would help presidents shape legislation in Congress Political parties seen as a positive good JACKSON'S LEGACY

King Andrew : 

KING ANDREW Opponents referred to him as King Andrew because used the veto more than any president to that time…..12 times Used veto to benefit the Common Man. Destroyed the BUS in 1836 Used the veto for personal revenge against his enemies… Henry Clay----Maysville Road Opposed increasing federal spending and the national debt Interpreted the powers of Congress narrowly Kitchen cabinet Picture shows President Jackson holding a veto in his left hand and scepter in his right. US Constitution is torn up and Jackson is standing on it… King Andrew

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JACKSON'S LEGACY JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY Grew out of the rich soil of Jeffersonian republicanism JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY Political world changed during the New Democracy. Two new political parties emerge WHIGS Strong national govt. Favored the BUS, protective tariffs, internal improvements, industry, public schools and moral reforms such as prohibition of liquor and abolition of slavery. Best and privileged run the govt. DEMOCRATS Believed in state’s rights and federal restrain in economic and social affairs. Liberty of the individual and were fiercely on guard against the inroads of privilege into the government. Pro-slavery Protected the common man….

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Failures Growing social stratification Gap between rich and poor visibly widened Jackson’s financial policies and lack of a national bank helped lead to the Panic of 1837, which was a serious depression that lasted until 1843 JACKSON'S LEGACY

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Andrew Jackson in Retirement

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Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844(one year before his death) 1767 - 1845

The Presidency ofMartin Van Buren : 

The Presidency ofMartin Van Buren

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The 1836 Election Results Martin Van Buren “Old Kinderhook”[O. K.]

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V.P. Martin Van Buren wins in 1836 Van Buren did not appeal to the common people Panic of 1837 Blamed on the Democrats “Van Ruin’s” Depression “Divorce Bill” separating the bank from the government and storing money in some of the vaults of the larger American cities, thus keeping the money safe but also unavailable that advocated the independent treasury, and in 1840, it was passed. Independent treasury The Presidency ofMartin Van Buren

Election of 1840 : 

Election of 1840 “Log Cabin and Hard Cider” William Henry Harrison (Whig) “Tippecanoe and Tyler too” “Van! Van! Is a Used-up Man! The Whigs’ Triumph

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Election of 1840

The Whigs’ Triumph (Second Party System) : 

The Whigs’ Triumph (Second Party System)

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