Iron-ore : Iron-ore 7/13/2010 1 Sunit Jain Introduction : Introduction Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), goethite (FeO(OH)), limonite (FeO(OH).n(H2O)) or siderite (FeCO3). Hematite is also known as "natural ore". The name refers to the early years of mining, when certain hematite ores contained 66% iron and could be fed directly into iron making blast furnaces. Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron, which is one of the main raw materials to make steel. 98% of the mined iron ore is used to make steel.Indeed, it has been argued that iron ore is "more integral to the global economy than any other commodity, except perhaps oil.” 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 2 Slide 3: World Steel Industry – Top Ten Source: IISI 2008 9 4 5 3 2 S. Korea
53.6mT 6 7 Italy
30.6mT 10 Germany
37.1mT 8 1 China
500.5mT Global crude steel Production: 1351.3 million tonnes (mT) Indian Iron Ore Scenario : Indian Iron Ore Scenario 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 4 Sourcing- Indian Iron Ore – Mine Map : Sourcing- Indian Iron Ore – Mine Map 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 5 Sourcing- Indian Iron Ore-Reserves & Mine Locations (Hematite Ore Reserves) : Sourcing- Indian Iron Ore-Reserves & Mine Locations (Hematite Ore Reserves) Sourcing- Indian Iron Ore-Logistics & Port Network : Sourcing- Indian Iron Ore-Logistics & Port Network Advantages
Suitable Availability of ports of both east & west coast of India
Close interactions & networking with whole logistics chain
Basic transport arrangement are in place viz. road, rail, barge
Regular Congestion at the port leading high variation in shipping cost viz. MV Hanjin Marugame waited for 46 days at Haldia port for berthing & general waiting period of 20-25 days at Paradip etc.
Majority of cargo move from long distance via surface transport, poor availability of railway rakes
High transportation cost
Major statutory requirement from Mining department for movement of cargo from mine to Port- Permits
Uncertain logistics scenario due to various political & social reasons Sourcing- Indian Iron Ore- Port Network : Sourcing- Indian Iron Ore- Port Network Slide 9: 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 9 Occurrences of Iron Ore in India Zone A Zone B Zone E Zone D Zone C * * * * * Orissa – iron ore : Orissa – iron ore Occupying an important position on the country's map, Orissa's rich mineral reserves constitute 28% Iron ore, 24% coal, 59% Bauxite and 98% Chromite of India's total deposits. The state's comparative advantage on this account has attracted the attention of many mining and metallurgical companies. 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 10 The state can be divided into twelve industrially active zones / areas namely : The state can be divided into twelve industrially active zones / areas namely Rajgangpur Area (Iron & Steel, Sponge Iron, Cement, Secondary steel. Melting and rolling mill & refractories and chemicals).
• Ib valley area (Thermal power, Sponge iron, refractories, and coal mines)
• Hirakud area (Aluminum & rolling mills)
• Talcher-Angul area (Thermal power, Aluminum, Coal washeries, Ferro alloys, Coal mines).
• Choudwar area (Ferro alloys, Thermal power, pulp and paper, coke oven)
• Balasore area (pulp and paper, ferro alloys, rubber industries)
• Chandikhol (stone crusher, coke oven)
• Duburi (Integrated steel, ferro alloys, rubber industries)
• Paradeep area (fertilizer, sea food processing, petroleum coke)
• Khurda – Tapang area (stone crusher)
• Joda – Barbil area (iron, sponge iron, ferro alloys, iron ore crusher, mineral processing).
• Rayagada area (pulp and paper, ferro alloys). 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 11 Slide 12: Besides the reserves of major minerals like chromite, nickel, bauxite, iron-ore and coal; other minerals like china clay, fire clay, limestone, quartz, precious and semi precious stones, copper, manganese, graphic, vanadium etc. are also available in the state.
Iron ore is abundantly available in the districts of Mayurbhanj, Sundargarh, Keonjhar and Jajpur. While chromite is mostly available in Jajpur, Dhenkanal and Keonjhar districts, manganese deposits are available in Sundargarh and Keonjhar districts. Dolomite is available plentily only in the district of Sundargarh. There are two major coal bearing area in the state which are currently being exploited namely Talcher and the Ib valley. As per the latest estimation the total reserve of coal in the state is 51571 million tonne followed by iron ore (4177 million tonne), limestone (2224 million tonne) and bauxite (1530 million tonne) in Orissa.
The total number of mining leases in the state as on 31.03.2004 was 607 covering an area of 101947 hectares 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 12 Orissa port facility-Paradip Port : Orissa port facility-Paradip Port Paradip is one of the Major Ports of India and late Sri Biju Pattanaik the then Chief Minister of Orissa.
For more details visit to http://www.paradipport.gov.in/faciliti.pdf 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 13 Jharkhand- iron Ore : Jharkhand- iron Ore Jharkhand has large deposits of minerals. 40% of the total minerals of the country are available in the state. The state is the sole producer of cooking coal, Uranium and Pyrite. It ranks first in the production of coal, mica, Kainite and copper in India. The geological exploration and exploitation of gold, silver, base metals precious stones etc. are the potential areas of futures. 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 14 JHARKHAND MINERAL MAP : JHARKHAND MINERAL MAP 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 15 Nearest port is Paradip and Haldia Port Resource factor : Resource factor 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 16 Karnataka iron ores : Karnataka iron ores Hematite iron ores: In the spindle shaped Sandur schist belt rich concentration of iron ores are confined to two prominent bands: the western Sandur belt and eastern Copper Mountain belt. The banded iron formations in these ranges have been weathered, altered and have undergone supergene enrichment of ores forming rich haematitic iron ore cappings analyzing 62 to 68% Fe content. Some red oxide bands are also found associated with these enriched ores. The supergene iron ores are associated with manganese ores of similar origin. 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 17 Karnataka iron ores : Karnataka iron ores Iron Ores of Sandur region encompassing Sandur, Hospet and Bellary taluks of Bellary district can be grouped under eight ranges namely (a) NEB range [includes Bharatarayanaharavu, Gogga property, Ingligi, Jambunathanahalli and Sankalapuram] (b) Ramandurga or Ramgad range [includes Ramandurga, Ramgad and Vyasankere] (c)Timmappangudi range (d)Donimalai range (e) Ettinhatti range [includes Ubbalagandi, Rajapuram and Konanharavu] (f) Devadri range (g) Kumarswamy range [includes Subrayanahalli] and (h) Copper Mountain range [includes Halkundi, Belegal, Vibhutigudda and Haraginadona mines].Total iron ore reserves of Bellary-Sandur-Hospet sector has been conservatively estimated around 1000 million tones, but in reality it could be about 2000 million tonnes 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 18 Estimated Hematite and Magnetite Iron ore resources of Karnataka (IBM, 2005) : Estimated Hematite and Magnetite Iron ore resources of Karnataka (IBM, 2005) 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 19 Districtwise Production of iron ores in Karnataka (in metric tonnes) : Districtwise Production of iron ores in Karnataka (in metric tonnes) 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 20 List of Ports in Coastal of Karnataka : List of Ports in Coastal of Karnataka Belikri Port
New Mangalore port
Old Mangalore port
Tadri Port 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 21 GOa : GOa 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 22 Goa Iron ore : Goa Iron ore Goa besides its popularity as a tourist destination is famous for its mining industry that largely comprises of iron and manganese ore mines. Goa has earned the status of the largest exporter of iron ore in India. The Goan iron ore deposits have been a source of iron ore to the steel industry, for different countries across Asia and Europe notably, Japan, China, Korea, etc. The Goan iron ore is normally of iron content of 58%-63% and used as a blend with high-grade ore. The iron ore exports comprise of fines as well as lumps. Processing of the ore normally comprises of crushing to meet the requisite size specification and/or washing to remove the impurities as well as upgrade the iron content to the specific buyer requirement. Magnetic processing is also utilized to upgrade the iron ore. 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 23 Goa Iron ore : Goa Iron ore The advantage of the Goan mining industry has been the network of rivers that connect the mines with the natural port that provides a cost effective and efficient mechanism to transport the ore besides the abundant reserve of iron ore deposits.
The recent demand for iron ore from China has seen a boom in this industry that has seen large inflow of investment in processing plants and handling facilities as well as new entrants. The major players in the Goan iron industry are Sesa Goa, Chowgules, Salgaocars, Dempos, Fomento and the Timblos. 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 24 Port facility : Port facility Mormugao Port In Goa currently more than 50% of ore loading is done through Berth No: 9, Mormugao Port. The rest is through Transhipper harboured within the Port limits of Mormugao & Panaji Port, Manual Mid-stream loading.
Mormugao Port is a natural harbour. It may be considered a mono Port, as 85% of the cargo handled is Iron Ore. Berth No: 9 is exclusively allocated for handling Iron Ore. It is a noteworthy fact that the Goan exporters are the major contributors to the flourishing of these ports. 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 25 Port facility : Port facility The Mormugao Port offers a wide range of standard facilities for pilotage, towage, lighterage, bunkering, loading, unloading, transit sheds, wharehouses, freighting, medical aid and supplies etc. The most specialized services for ore handling are provided. Repair and service facilities are available at Goa Shipyard, Government of India Undertaking, and at other specialised private firms.
Mormugao port has a mechanical ore-handling complex. At present the limited draft at Berth No: 9, permits the loading of only Panamax size vessels. However the Cape size vessels can be up topped upto 200,000 tones or more by transhippers (loading vessels), which are owned and maintained by the exporters. The transhippers thus play a complementary role in the port's operations and help raise Mormugao port to international standards. 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 26 Port facility : Port facility Panaji Port
Panaji Port is a minor port. Loading at this port is done with the help of transhippers The congestion at Mormugao Port Trust, is thereby reduced due to the introduction of Panaji Port. The loading capacity is approximately 25000 tons per day.
Since the draft available at Mormugao Port is limited, the Goan exporters have also invested in transfer vessel to uptop balance quantity, thereby enabling even larger capesize vessels to call on the Port. Currently, there are six transhippers operating within the Goan coast, namely : 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 27 Port facility : Port facility (a) Maratha Deep (b) Swati Rani (c) Priyamvada (d) Sunrise (e) Orissa (f) Satisha(g) Goan Pride
Due to these transhippers, vessels of more than 200,000 DWT can be easily loaded at an average output of around 20,000 ~ 25,000 tons/day per transhipper. Goa is,thereby able to export an average of 15 million tons due to the complimentary services provided by these transhippers. On an average, around 35 ~ 40% of the total exports from Goa is loaded by transhippers. The Largest Iron Ore Vessel that has called in Goan Ports is M.V.Alster Cove, which was 300,000 DWT. 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 28 Chhattisgarh iron ore : Chhattisgarh iron ore Chhattisgarh is the richest State in terms of mineral wealth, with 28 varieties of major minerals, including diamonds
A fifth of iron ore in the country is here, and one of the best quality iron ore deposits in the world is found in the Bailadila mines in south Chhattisgarh, from where it is exported to Japan. Rich deposits of Bauxite, Limestone, Dolomite and Corundum are found in the State.The State is lucky to have large deposits of coal, iron ore and limestone in close proximity, making it the ideal location for the lowest cost of production. 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 29 A few major mineral deposits are: (all figures in million tonnes) : A few major mineral deposits are: (all figures in million tonnes) Coal : 35000
Iron ore : 2336
Lime stone : 3580
Dolomite : 606
Bauxite : 96
Cassiterite : 29 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 30 Paradip Port
is the nearest port Major players of iron ore in india : Major players of iron ore in india National Mineral Development Corporation ( NMDC)
Orissa Mining Corporation (OMC)
Orissa Mineral Development Company Ltd.
Sesa Goa Ltd.
MSPL Ltd. 56
Other Major Mining Companies in Goa and Karnataka 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 31 A Few Other Significant Iron Ore Mining Companies : A Few Other Significant Iron Ore Mining Companies JSPL
Ispat Industries 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 32 Iron Ore Production (2008-09 ) : Iron Ore Production (2008-09 ) 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 33 Indian Iron Ore : 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 34 34 Indian Iron Ore Growth factors Abundant
Iron Ore National
Steel policy High
GDP growth Skilled
Human Resource Slide 35: 35 Table - 1 Iron Ore Resources of India (MT) Consumption Pattern of Iron Ore : 36 Domestic Consumption 45%
Exports 55% Consumption Pattern of Iron Ore Iron Ore Production : by Captive and Non-Captive Mines : Iron Ore Production : by Captive and Non-Captive Mines 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 37 Slide 38: 7/13/2010 Sunit Jain 38 Slide 39: Skilled Human Resources Abundant Iron Ore Government Policy Huge Potential for Demand High GDP growth rate of 7%
1 billion population
Low per capita steel consumption of 33kg (World av. 181 kg) Reserves 23 billion tonnes Stable currency
Easing of regulations
Strong Banking & judicial system Growth factors for India Encouraging trade relations with ASEAN and other countries
Exploring new Energy resources Indian Potential for Steel Slide 40: Approved by Government of India in September 2005 Major Emphasis:
Critical Input Raw Materials: Iron Ore and Coking Coal
Infrastructure facilities like Roads, Railways and Ports.
Research and Development
Market outlook on prices of steel
Environmental Concerns. National Steel Policy-2005 Milion Tonnes Slide 41: Critical inputs for Steel Production
Projected Requirement of Critical inputs Raw Materials Requirement New Additions through BF Route (60%), Electric Arc Furnace (33%), others (7%) Million Tonnes Slide 42: Iron Ore Reserves Total Reserves – about 23 BT (P)
Hematite (11.43 BT) and Magnetite (10.68 BT).
High grade hematite (65%) only 14% of total reserves. Iron Ore - Reserve Availability Million Tonnes Slide 43: Iron Ore Production (Million Tonnes) Increase in production driven by export
Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Jharkhand and Orissa - major share Iron Ore – Production Scenario Slide 44: Iron Ore – Domestic Consumption Million Tonnes Major consumer SAIL and TISCO - captive mines
RINL - NMDC
ESSAR, Ispat, Vikram Ispat, JVSL - NMDC & others Iron Ore – Domestic Consumption Slide 45: Iron Ore – Exports Million Tonnes Exports to China has increased due to surge in demand
More than 90% of exports comprise of iron ore fines
Low demand of iron ore fines in Indian segment Iron Ore – Exports Slide 46: In Numbers Rapid Growth in Productivity per mines at a CAGR of 10% Source : IBM, Nagpur Mine in Operation & Production Slide 47: Strategies envisaged
Investments plans for idle mining leases.
Speedy renewal of existing mining leases
Grant of new mining leases:
Environmental & Forestry Clearances in fixed time frame
Incentives for Value addition for iron ore fines.
Encouragement for scientific and large scale mining Iron Ore – Future Perspective Slide 48: IRON ORE EXPORTS Projected iron ore exports 100MT
No appreciable increase in quantum envisaged Future Policy envisaged High grade lump to be leveraged for imports of coking coal or for investment in India.
Maintain balance between exports and domestic consumption (2019-20) Iron Ore – Future Perspective Slide 49: Slow pace of growth of the mineral sector
Time taking procedures in grant of RP/PL/ML viz-a-viz other countries like Australia, Canada etc
Review of existing procedures for granting RP/PL/ML
Delay in obtaining statutory clearances: Iron Ore – Key Issues Slide 50: 3. Less utilization of iron ore fines in iron and steel industry.
4. Iron ore resources to be further established by more exploration. Iron Ore – Key Issues Slide 51: Modes of transport
Facilitate transportation of Raw Materials, Finished Steel and other products.
Every tonne of steel production involves transportation of 4 (four) tonnes of material.
The envisaged addition of 75 million tonnes of steel production annually implies 300 million tonnes of additional traffic
Gain competitive edge both in domestic and overseas market. Transportation Slide 52: MT Traffic for roads, due to steel industry by 2020, would increase by 300%(approx.).
The road network needs would be expanded
The steel plants and mines to be integrated with the national highway development. * Excludes traffic due to export of iron ore Roads: Future Perspective Traffic handled by Road (MT) 2004-05 2019-20 Slide 53: MT Traffic for railways, for steel industry by 2020, would
increase by 300%(approx.).The railway facilities would
be expanded substantially
Participation by the steel industry in creation of railway
infrastructure * Excludes traffic due to export of iron ore Railways – Future perspective Traffic handled by Railways (MT) 2004-05 2019-20 Slide 54: * Including iron ore Port Traffic Enormous dependency on port infrastructure is foreseen in
the near future.
Steel producers intervention in development of ports and berth
facilities is needed for improving productivity, turn around time,
capacity to handle larger vessels and other operational
parameters of efficiency. Ports - Future Perspective Slide 55: Roads
Inadequate road linkages between mines and steel plants.
Limited Rail linkages between mines and steel plants.
Need for high capacity wagons for improving carrying capacity.
Investments for promoting dedicated rail linkages.
Capacity to hold larger size vessels at the ports.
Development of associated infrastructure like weighment facilities, coal holding facilities.More draft for handling larger size vessels.
Railway network needs to be strengthened for handling high capacity at ports Transportation - Issues Slide 56: India - a dominant economy in 21st century.
Government focused approach and interventions are facilitating fast track growth.
Synergy in meeting iron ore and coking coal requirements
Iron Ore: Initiatives for simplification of procedures have begun…………..
Joint Ventures and Equity participation abroad by steel and coal companies for augmenting supplies of coking coal.
Investments in beneficiation of non-coking coal as well as establishing Natural Gas as an alternative source for usage in sponge iron industry. CONCLUSIONS